L'esclavage dans la Rome antique est l'institution qui régit la condition des non-libres (appelés servi, singulier servus), juridiquement assimilés à des choses.Souvent, les personnes réduites en esclavage, ou maintenues dans cette condition d'esclave, proviennent d'autres peuples conquis, ce qui se manifeste souvent par une langue, une religion, voire une couleur de peau, différentes de celles des maîtres. Le prestige d'un Romain se calcule au nombre d'esclaves qu'il possède.

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  • L'esclavage dans la Rome antique est l'institution qui régit la condition des non-libres (appelés servi, singulier servus), juridiquement assimilés à des choses.Souvent, les personnes réduites en esclavage, ou maintenues dans cette condition d'esclave, proviennent d'autres peuples conquis, ce qui se manifeste souvent par une langue, une religion, voire une couleur de peau, différentes de celles des maîtres. Le prestige d'un Romain se calcule au nombre d'esclaves qu'il possède. Certains en commandent plusieurs milliers. Le simple citoyen se satisfait d'un ou deux. N'en avoir aucun est le comble de la misère.
  • A escravidão na Antiga Roma implicava uma quase absoluta redução nos direitos daqueles que ostentavam essa condição, convertidos em simples propriedades dos seus donos. Com o passar do tempo, os direitos dos escravos aumentaram. Contudo, mesmo depois da alforria (manumissio), um escravo liberto não possuía muitos dos direitos e privilégios dos cidadãos romanos.Estima-se que mais de 30% da população da Roma Antiga era formada por escravos.Durante o final da república ocorreram várias revoltas de escravos, conhecidas como guerras servis. As revoltas de escravos, tal como terceira Guerra Servil foram duramente reprimidas. Em latim, o escravo era denominado servus ou ancillus (este último termo era aplicado mais particularmente ao escravo que servia no lar).Normalmente, as pessoas reduzidas à escravidão ou mantidas nesta condição provinham de povos conquistados, o que se manifestava com frequência em características físicas ou língua diferentes das dos amos.Os romanos consideravam a escravidão como infame, e um soldado romano preferia suicidar-se antes de cair escravo de um povo bárbaro, ou seja, não romano.
  • Рабство в Риме получило наибольшее распространение по сравнению с другими древними государствами, но зачастую это отвечало интересам тогдашнего общества, послужив важным катализатором его развития.
  • In ognuna delle fasi storiche di Roma si può riscontrare il fenomeno della schiavitù. L'entità numerica e l'importanza economica e sociale della schiavitù nella Roma antica aumentò con l'espansione del dominio di Roma e la sconfitta di popolazioni che venivano sottomesse e molto spesso rese schiave. Soltanto a partire dal Tardo Impero con la conclusione delle guerre di conquista, l'ascesa al potere di imperatori non italici, la diffusione del Cristianesimo e la concessione della cittadinanza romana a molti popoli barbari (in seguito al loro arruolamento nelle legioni romane oppure al pagamento di tributi), il fenomeno della schiavitù cominciò a declinare e poi estinguersi progressivamente.In lingua latina schiavo si diceva servus oppure ancillus. Il titolare del diritto di proprietà sullo schiavo era detto dominus. Si ha notizia anche di schiavi posseduti da altri schiavi: in questo caso, formalmente, il primo schiavo (detto ordinarius) non era proprietà dell'altro (detto vicarius), ma faceva parte del suo peculium, l'insieme di beni che il dominus gli concedeva di tenere per sé.I Romani consideravano l'essere schiavi come una condizione infame ed un soldato romano preferiva togliersi la vita piuttosto che diventare schiavo di un qualsiasi popolo 'barbaro' (termine derivante dalla lingua greca, βάρβαρος, con cui prima i greci e poi i romani definivano gli 'stranieri', ossia rispettivamente i 'non greci' e i 'non romani').
  • L'esclavitud a l'antiga Roma constituïa una de les característiques de la societat romana. Al llarg de tota la història de l'Imperi romà i el seu domini sobre la Mediterrània, Europa, Àfrica i Àsia, la societat romana va ser essencialment esclavista, i tant la seva economia com la seva estructura social es basava en un sistema de classes on l'esclau constituïa l'esglaó més baix de la societat.
  • Die Sklaverei im Römischen Reich bestand bis ins 2. Jahrhundert v. Chr. aus Schuldsklaverei, in geringem Maße wurden im Römischen Reich jedoch auch Kriegsgefangene versklavt. Die Schuldsklaverei wurde im 2. Jahrhundert v. Chr. verboten, offiziell auf Druck der Bevölkerung. Tatsächlich kamen zu jener Zeit wegen der Eroberungsfeldzüge der Römer immer mehr Kriegsgefangene als Sklaven nach Rom, wodurch die Schuldsklaverei zunehmend überflüssig wurde. Zeitweise waren ein Viertel bis mehr als ein Drittel der Einwohner Roms Sklaven.
  • Para budak di Romawi memainkan peranan penting dalam masyarakat dan ekonomi Romawi. Selain sebagai pekerja di ladang dan tambang, budak juga melakukan tugas domestik seperti pelayan, atau tugas lainnya, seperti akuntan. Meskipun status pasti budak berubah-ubah sepanjang sejarah Romawi, mereka secara umum dianggap sebagai barang di bawah hukum Romawi dan hanya memiliki sedikit hak. Seiring waktu, budak mulai memperoleh perlindungan hukum, termasuk hak mengajukan keluhan terhadap pemiliknya. Setelah adanya peraturan manimissio, anak dari mantan budak (libertus) berhak memperoleh kewarganegaraan penuh. Ketika Kekaisaran Romawi mengalami kemunduran dan jumlah budak mulai berkurang, pembebasan budak mulai dilarang.
  • Antik Roma'da kölelik toplum ve ekonomide önemli bir rol oynardı. El işçiliğinden ayrıca, köleler çok sayıda ailevi hizmetleri gerçekleştirirdi ve çok yetenekli iş ve mesleklerde istihdam olanabilirlerdi. Öğretmenler, muhasebeciler, doktorlar ve genellikle kölelerdi. Özellikle Yunan köleler yüksek eğitimli olabilirlerdi. Vasıfsız köle, ya da ceza olarak köleliğe mahkum olanlar, madenlerde, değirmenlerde ve çiftliklerde çalışırlardı. Onların yaşam koşulları acımasız ve hayatları öteki kölelerden daha kısaydı.Köleler Roma hukukuna göre mülkiyet olarak kabul edilir ve hiçbir hukuki hakları olmazdı. Roma vatandaşlarının aksine köleler, bedensel ceza, cinsel sömürü (fahişeler genellikle kölelerdi), yargısız infaz ve işkence'ye tabi tutulabilirlerdi. Romalı köle'ye, efendisinin malı, ona ait olmamasına rağmen, kullanmak için izin verilirdi. Nitelikli veya eğitimli köleler kendi paralarını kazanmak için izin alabilirdi ve böylece ileride kendi özgürlüklerin satın alabilmek için. Bu tür köleler genellikle yüksek iradebakımından tarafından serbest bırakıldı , ya da için . Yüksek statü köle bir önemli örneği Tiro, Cicero'nun sekreteri. Roma'da Yunan şehir devletlerinden farklı olarak serbest köleler vatandaş olabilirdi. Azat olan köle, bir Roma vatandaşının aktif politik özgürlüğüne sahipti (libertas), oy hakkına kavuşurdu.Kölelerin önemli bir kaynak Roma Cumhuriyeti dönemindeki askeri genişleme olmuştur. Eski askerlerin köle gibi kullanılması topluca silahlı ayaklanmalara yol açtı, sonuncusu Spartacus önderliğinde oldu. Erken Roma İmparatorluğu ( 1. - 2. asır ) ve Pax Romana sırasında istikrarın ve yeni toprak fetihleri​​nin eksikliği insan ticaretinin bu besleme hattını kuruttu. Köle iş gücünü korumak için kölelerin serbest kalmasına artan yasal kısıtlamalar konulmuştur. Kaçan köleler avlanır ve (genellikle bir ödül için) iade edililirdi.
  • La esclavitud en la Antigua Roma constituía una de las características de la sociedad romana. A lo largo de toda la historia del Imperio romano y su dominio sobre el Mediterráneo, Europa, África y Asia, la sociedad romana fue esencialmente esclavista, y tanto su economía como su estructura social se basaba en un sistema de clases donde el esclavo constituía el escalón más bajo de la sociedad.
  • Slavery in ancient Rome played an important role in society and the economy. Besides manual labor, slaves performed many domestic services, and might be employed at highly skilled jobs and professions. Teachers, accountants, and physicians were often slaves. Greek slaves in particular might be highly educated. Unskilled slaves, or those condemned to slavery as punishment, worked on farms, in mines, and at mills. Their living conditions were brutal, and their lives short.Slaves were considered property under Roman law and had no legal personhood. Unlike Roman citizens, they could be subjected to corporal punishment, sexual exploitation (prostitutes were often slaves), torture, and summary execution. The testimony of a slave could not be accepted in a court of law unless the slave was tortured—a practice based on the belief that slaves in a position to be privy to their masters' affairs would be too virtuously loyal to reveal damaging evidence unless coerced. Over time, however, slaves gained increased legal protection, including the right to file complaints against their masters. Attitudes changed in part because of the influence among the educated elite of the Stoics, whose egalitarian views of humanity extended to slaves.Roman slaves could hold property which, despite the fact that it belonged to their masters, they were allowed to use as if it were their own. Skilled or educated slaves were allowed to earn their own money, and might hope to save enough to buy their freedom. Such slaves were often freed by the terms of their master's will, or for services rendered. A notable example of a high-status slave was Tiro, the secretary of Cicero. Tiro was freed before his master's death, and was successful enough to retire on his own country estate, where he died at the age of 99.Rome differed from Greek city-states in allowing freed slaves to become citizens. After manumission, a slave who had belonged to a Roman citizen enjoyed not only passive freedom from ownership, but active political freedom (libertas), including the right to vote. A slave who had acquired libertas was thus a libertus ("freed person," feminine liberta) in relation to his former master, who then became his patron (patronus). As a social class, freed slaves were libertini, though later writers used the terms libertus and libertinus interchangeably. Libertini were not entitled to hold public office or state priesthoods, nor could they achieve legitimate senatorial rank. During the early Empire, however, freedmen held key positions in the government bureaucracy, so much so that Hadrian limited their participation by law. Any future children of a freedman would be born free, with full rights of citizenship.Vernae (singular verna) were slaves born within a household (familia) or on a family farm or agricultural estate (villa). There was a stronger social obligation to care for vernae, whose epitaphs sometimes identify them as such, and at times they would have been the children of free males of the household. The general Latin word for slave was servus.A major source of slaves had been Roman military expansion during the Republic. The use of former soldiers as slaves led perhaps inevitably to a series of en masse armed rebellions, the Servile Wars, the last of which was led by Spartacus. During the Pax Romana of the early Roman Empire (1st–2nd century CE), emphasis was placed on maintaining stability, and the lack of new territorial conquests dried up this supply line of human trafficking. To maintain an enslaved work force, increased legal restrictions on freeing slaves were put into place. Escaped slaves would be hunted down and returned (often for a reward).
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  • L'esclavage dans la Rome antique est l'institution qui régit la condition des non-libres (appelés servi, singulier servus), juridiquement assimilés à des choses.Souvent, les personnes réduites en esclavage, ou maintenues dans cette condition d'esclave, proviennent d'autres peuples conquis, ce qui se manifeste souvent par une langue, une religion, voire une couleur de peau, différentes de celles des maîtres. Le prestige d'un Romain se calcule au nombre d'esclaves qu'il possède.
  • Рабство в Риме получило наибольшее распространение по сравнению с другими древними государствами, но зачастую это отвечало интересам тогдашнего общества, послужив важным катализатором его развития.
  • L'esclavitud a l'antiga Roma constituïa una de les característiques de la societat romana. Al llarg de tota la història de l'Imperi romà i el seu domini sobre la Mediterrània, Europa, Àfrica i Àsia, la societat romana va ser essencialment esclavista, i tant la seva economia com la seva estructura social es basava en un sistema de classes on l'esclau constituïa l'esglaó més baix de la societat.
  • La esclavitud en la Antigua Roma constituía una de las características de la sociedad romana. A lo largo de toda la historia del Imperio romano y su dominio sobre el Mediterráneo, Europa, África y Asia, la sociedad romana fue esencialmente esclavista, y tanto su economía como su estructura social se basaba en un sistema de clases donde el esclavo constituía el escalón más bajo de la sociedad.
  • Antik Roma'da kölelik toplum ve ekonomide önemli bir rol oynardı. El işçiliğinden ayrıca, köleler çok sayıda ailevi hizmetleri gerçekleştirirdi ve çok yetenekli iş ve mesleklerde istihdam olanabilirlerdi. Öğretmenler, muhasebeciler, doktorlar ve genellikle kölelerdi. Özellikle Yunan köleler yüksek eğitimli olabilirlerdi. Vasıfsız köle, ya da ceza olarak köleliğe mahkum olanlar, madenlerde, değirmenlerde ve çiftliklerde çalışırlardı.
  • Slavery in ancient Rome played an important role in society and the economy. Besides manual labor, slaves performed many domestic services, and might be employed at highly skilled jobs and professions. Teachers, accountants, and physicians were often slaves. Greek slaves in particular might be highly educated. Unskilled slaves, or those condemned to slavery as punishment, worked on farms, in mines, and at mills.
  • In ognuna delle fasi storiche di Roma si può riscontrare il fenomeno della schiavitù. L'entità numerica e l'importanza economica e sociale della schiavitù nella Roma antica aumentò con l'espansione del dominio di Roma e la sconfitta di popolazioni che venivano sottomesse e molto spesso rese schiave.
  • Die Sklaverei im Römischen Reich bestand bis ins 2. Jahrhundert v. Chr. aus Schuldsklaverei, in geringem Maße wurden im Römischen Reich jedoch auch Kriegsgefangene versklavt. Die Schuldsklaverei wurde im 2. Jahrhundert v. Chr. verboten, offiziell auf Druck der Bevölkerung. Tatsächlich kamen zu jener Zeit wegen der Eroberungsfeldzüge der Römer immer mehr Kriegsgefangene als Sklaven nach Rom, wodurch die Schuldsklaverei zunehmend überflüssig wurde.
  • Para budak di Romawi memainkan peranan penting dalam masyarakat dan ekonomi Romawi. Selain sebagai pekerja di ladang dan tambang, budak juga melakukan tugas domestik seperti pelayan, atau tugas lainnya, seperti akuntan. Meskipun status pasti budak berubah-ubah sepanjang sejarah Romawi, mereka secara umum dianggap sebagai barang di bawah hukum Romawi dan hanya memiliki sedikit hak. Seiring waktu, budak mulai memperoleh perlindungan hukum, termasuk hak mengajukan keluhan terhadap pemiliknya.
  • A escravidão na Antiga Roma implicava uma quase absoluta redução nos direitos daqueles que ostentavam essa condição, convertidos em simples propriedades dos seus donos. Com o passar do tempo, os direitos dos escravos aumentaram.
rdfs:label
  • Esclavage dans la Rome antique
  • Antik Roma'da kölelik
  • Esclavitud a l'antiga Roma
  • Esclavitud en la Antigua Roma
  • Escravidão na Roma Antiga
  • Perbudakan di Romawi kuno
  • Schiavitù nell'antica Roma
  • Sklaverei im Römischen Reich
  • Slavery in ancient Rome
  • Рабство в Древнем Риме
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