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dbpedia-owl:abstract
  • L’histoire de l'Europe, et surtout de l’Europe méridionale, est une des parties les mieux documentées, étudiées et connues de l’histoire mondiale, pour quatre raisons : la géologie fait affleurer des roches en de nombreux endroits, ce qui a permis très tôt les constructions en pierre ; les climats permettent la bonne conservation de nombreux sites archéologiques ; l’écriture s’y est tôt imposée et de nombreux documents écrits se sont conservés ; les Européens ont eu tôt le souci de transcrire leurs histoires (Homère, Hérodote, Strabon...).C’est en Europe que les historiens européens ont défini les grandes périodes préhistoriques et historiques (Préhistoire, Antiquité, Moyen Âge...) qui valent principalement pour ce continent, celles de l’histoire africaine sub-saharienne, amérindienne précolombienne, chinoise ou indienne étant différentes.Toutefois, l’histoire européenne connaît les mêmes trois grandes « révolutions techniques » que le reste de l’histoire mondiale, chacune d’elles bouleversant profondément les modes de vie antérieurs : la « révolution du feu » intervenue (selon les hypothèses) il y a 800 000 à 400 000 ans, qui a donné au genre humain le moyen de modifier les milieux naturels (au profit du sien : la savane et la prairie), d’être un prédateur beaucoup plus efficace et de s’alimenter de nutriments cuits ; la « révolution néolithique » intervenue (selon les aires géographiques) il y a 8 000 à 2 000 ans, marquée par la sédentarisation et l’agriculture ; la « révolution industrielle », intervenue depuis deux siècles environ, et qui a donné au genre humain accès à l’énergie électrique et aux énergies fossiles et fissiles.
  • Die Geschichte Europas ist die Geschichte der Menschen auf dem europäischen Kontinent, von dessen erster Besiedlung bis zur Gegenwart.Die klassische Antike begann im antiken Griechenland, das im Allgemeinen als der Beginn der westlichen Zivilisation angesehen wird und einen immensen Einfluss auf Sprache, Politik, Erziehungssysteme, Philosophie, Naturwissenschaften und Künste ausübte. Die griechische Kultur, die sich während des Hellenismus über weite Teile der östlichen Mittelmeerwelt ausgebreitet hatte, wurde vom Römischen Reich übernommen, das sich nach der Eroberung Italiens seit dem 3. Jahrhundert v. Chr. von Italien aus nach und nach über den gesamten Mittelmeerraum ausbreitete und im frühen 2. Jahrhundert n. Chr. seine größte Ausdehnung erreichte. Der römische Kaiser Konstantin der Große förderte mit der Konstantinischen Wende den Aufstieg des Christentums zur Staatsreligion im Imperium und verlegte seine Residenz in den Osten des Reiches nach Konstantinopel, dem heutigen Istanbul.Nach dem Untergang des Weströmischen Reiches 476 blieben große Teile Südosteuropas im Machtbereich des Oströmischen Reiches (Byzanz), während das Gebiet des früheren Weströmischen Reiches im Laufe der Völkerwanderung eine instabile Zeit durchlebte und sich hier mehrere germanisch-romanische Reiche bildeten. Karl der Große, 800 vom Papst zum Kaiser (im Westen) gekrönt, beherrschte große Teile Westeuropas, das jedoch bald darauf von Wikingern, Muslimen (Islamische Expansion bereits seit dem 7. Jahrhundert) und Magyaren (Ungarneinfälle) angegriffen wurde. Das Paderborner Epos, ein Werk der das Abendland erfassenden Karolingischen Renaissance, erklärte ihn zum „Vater Europas“ (pater Europæ). Im weiteren Verlauf des Frühmittelalters entstanden eine Reihe neuer Reiche in Europa und es fand eine Umformung des römischen Erbes statt. Das europäische Mittelalter war unter anderem geprägt von der Entstehung des Lehnswesens, einer ständischen Herrschaftsordnung und einer starken Rolle der christlichen Religion in Kultur und Alltag. Der Mongolensturm in der Mitte des 13. und die Pestepidemie in der Mitte des 14. Jahrhunderts versetzten dem europäischen Feudalsystem schwere Schläge.Die Renaissance, das erneute kulturelle Aufleben der griechisch-römischen Antike, begann im 14. Jahrhundert in Florenz. Die Ausbreitung des Buchdrucks, ausgehend von der Erfindung der Druckerpresse durch Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz, förderte die Bewegungen des Humanismus und der Reformation. Das Zeitalter der Reformation und Gegenreformation war von zahlreichen Religionskriegen gekennzeichnet, die ihren Abschluss im Dreißigjährigen Krieg und dem Westfälischen Frieden 1648 fanden. Die christliche Reconquista Spaniens und Portugals führte zum Zeitalter der Entdeckungen in Nord- und Südamerika, Afrika und Asien, zum Aufbau europäischer Kolonialreiche sowie zum „Columbian Exchange“, dem Austausch von Pflanzen und Tieren zwischen der östlichen und westlichen Hemisphäre.Die Industrielle Revolution, ausgehend von Großbritannien, förderte die Mechanisierung der Arbeitsprozesse und den internationalen Handel. Die Aufklärung forderte die Gewaltenteilung. Sie war der Vorbote der Französischen Revolution von 1789, aus welcher als neuer Herrscher Frankreichs Napoleon hervorging, der bis 1815 mehrere Kriege führte.Die erste Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts war von weiteren Revolutionen gekennzeichnet, aus denen das Bürgertum und die Arbeiterklasse in Frankreich und England gestärkt hervorgingen. 1861 entstand das Königreich Italien und 1871 das Deutsche Reich als Nationalstaaten, wie die meisten damaligen Staaten Europas in Form von konstitutionellen Monarchien. Gegen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts verstärkte sich im Zuge des Imperialismus der Konkurrenzkampf der europäischen Großmächte, bis zum Ausbruch des Ersten Weltkriegs 1914. Die russische Oktoberrevolution von 1917 führte zur Bildung der kommunistischen Sowjetunion. Die Unzufriedenheit mit den Ergebnissen des Ersten Weltkrieges sowie die Weltwirtschaftskrise von 1929 begünstigten den Aufstieg des Faschismus in Italien, des Franquismus in Spanien, des Nationalsozialismus in Deutschland und führten letztlich zum Zweiten Weltkrieg.Nach dem Kriegsende 1945 war Europa in der Periode des Kalten Krieges durch den „Eisernen Vorhang“ zwischen dem von den USA dominierten Westen und dem von der Sowjetunion beherrschten Ostblock getrennt. Gegen Ende der 1980er Jahre wurden die meisten sowjetischen Gliedstaaten unabhängig, und die Sowjetunion selbst löste sich auf. Mit der EU-Erweiterung sind bis 2007 die meisten Staaten und Gebiete des ehemaligen Ostblocks der EU beigetreten.Der Einfluss der Geschichte auf die Kulturen Europas kann geografisch in sechs unterschiedlichen Historischen Kulturregionen abgebildet werden.
  • La història d'Europa tracta del conjunt de fets relatius al continent europeu i de les cultures i civilitzacions que s'hi van establir, fins a l'actualitat.Segons l'historiador anglès Eric Hobsbawm, la història d'Europa com entitat començaria amb la caiguda de l'Imperi Romà d'Occident i amb la ruptura permanent entre les dues ribes de la Mediterrània, després de la conquesta musulmana del nord d'Àfrica. Els antics grecs estaven situats en una civilització tri-continental (Orient Mitjà, Egipte i una petita àrea de l'Europa del Mediterrani Oriental) i l'Imperi Romà va ser una imperi pan-mediterrani, més que europeu. Des de la caiguda de l'Imperi Romà d'Occident fins almenys durant deu segles, Europa va romandre desfeta i constantment presa d'invasors. Aquesta època no s'acaba totalment fins al 1683, quan els turcs van ser derrotats a les portes de Viena. A partir del 1942, Europa torna a situar-se lentament al centre de la història de món. En primer lloc tímidament, per la seva conquesta de l'hemisferi occidental del planeta i, ja definitivament, a partir de 1750, per la seva superioritat militar marítima econòmica i tecnològica. Aquesta supremacia s'estén des les conquestes del segle XVIII fins l'apogeu del colonialisme europeu, entre 1918 i 1945. El "moment" europeu en la història del món va acabar amb la Segona Guerra Mundial, encara que continua gaudint de la supremacia perduda, una rica herència econòmica i, en menor mesura, intel·lectual i cultural.
  • Per Storia d'Europa s'intende convenzionalmente la storia dell'omonimo continente e dei popoli che l'hanno abitato e che lo abitano. In un'accezione più ristretta per storia d'Europa si intende invece la storia dell'Unione Europea, dalla creazione della Comunità Economica Europea con i Trattati di Roma (1957) fino ad oggi.
  • Эта статья посвящена истории Европейского континента.
  • Historia Europy - opisuje historię ludzi zamieszkujących kontynent europejski od początku jego zaludnienia.Około 1,1 mln lat temu pierwszy człowiek (Homo erectus) przybył na tereny dzisiejszej Europy z Afryki pokonując Cieśninę Gibraltarską.
  • Europako historia kontinente horretan gertatutakoa kontatzen duten kondaira da. Hutsuneak hutsune, Historiaurretik Aro Garaikidera arte ongi ikertutako historia da.
  • Dit artikel is een overzicht van de (menselijke) geschiedenis van het werelddeel Europa. Deze valt ruwweg chronologisch in te delen in de prehistorie, de klassieke oudheid, de middeleeuwen, de nieuwe tijd, de moderne tijd en de eigentijdse tijd.Een Europese economische eenheid bestond in de oudheid in de vorm van het Romeinse handelsnetwerk; dit besloeg echter vooral het zuidelijke deel van het continent. Vanaf de middeleeuwen is een groeiende culturele eenwording waar te nemen, die hand in hand ging met de verspreiding van het christendom over het gehele continent; dit verdrong langzaamaan vrijwel alle andere religies, zij het dat het noordelijk deel veel langer aan de oude cultus vasthield. Een mate van economische eenheid, vergelijkbaar met die in Romeinse tijden, werd pas weer bereikt in de 16e eeuw met de opkomst van het kapitalisme. Desondanks werd Europa nooit een staatkundige eenheid en was het getuige van bloedige strijd, die zijn dieptepunt vond in de Eerste en Tweede Wereldoorlog, beide Europese conflicten die zich over de aardbol verspreidden.Vanaf de 16e eeuw begonnen Europese koloniale mogendheden andere delen van de wereld te overheersen, een overheersing die leidde tot een Europese hegemonie op het wereldtoneel in de 19e eeuw. In de wetenschappelijke- en industriële revoluties ontstane nieuwe ideeën en technieken konden door deze hegemonie vanuit Europa over de rest van de wereld worden verspreid.De opkomst van de Verenigde Staten (van oorsprong een Europese kolonie) en de Sovjet-Unie (die deels in Europa lag) en de twee wereldoorlogen verdeelden het continent in de tweede helft van de 20e eeuw grofweg in twee gescheiden economisch-politieke blokken. Tegelijkertijd begon een groeiende groep landen door middel van economische en politieke samenwerking aan een proces dat de Europese eenwording wordt genoemd, vanuit de wens verdere oorlogen te voorkomen.
  • Európa kulturális és gazdasági fejlődése egészen a bronzkorig nyúlik vissza. A nyugati kultúrák forrásának általában az ókori görögöket tekintik. A Római Birodalom évszázadokon keresztül birtokolta a kontinens mintegy felét. Bukása után a fejlődés hosszú időre szinte teljesen megállt, abban a korban, amit a felvilágosodás gondolkodói a sötét kornak, a mai történészek pedig egyszerűen középkornak neveznek. Ebben az időszakban kis közösségek, például kolostorok őrizték féltve a nehezen megszerzett tudást. Ez a korszak a reneszánsszal ért véget, amikor a felfedezések és a tudomány fejlődésének korszaka következett. A 15. századtól az európai nemzetek – különösen Spanyolország, Portugália, Franciaország és Anglia – hatalmas birodalmakat építettek, afrikai, amerikai és ázsiai gyarmatokkal. Az ipari forradalom Európában a 18. században kezdődött, és általános gazdagodáshoz, valamint a népesség növekedéséhez vezetett. A második világháború után, egészen a hidegháború végéig, Európa két nagy politikai és gazdasági tömbre osztódott: kommunista országokra Közép- és Kelet-Európában, és kapitalista országokra Nyugat-Európában. 1990 körül a kommunista blokk felbomlott.
  • A História da Europa descreve a passagem no tempo desde os primeiros humanos que habitaram o continente europeu até a atualidade. A primeira evidência do Homo sapiens na Europa data de 35 000 a.C. O relato mais antigo feito sobre o continente é a Ilíada, de Homero, da Antiga Grécia, que data de 700 a.C. A República Romana foi estabelecida em 509 a.C., e transformada no Novo Império de Otaviano na primeira metade do século I. A religião cristã foi adotada no século IV. Confrontado com migrações bárbaras e a praga, o império foi dividido entre Leste e Oeste, e a Idade Média se instalou no coração da Europa Ocidental. O Império Bizantino manteve a luz da civilização acesa no Leste. A Igreja Oriental e Ocidental confrontaram-se por séculos sobre o meio de governo eclesiástico, provocando o cisma em 1054, que aconteceu em seguida à divisão anterior de 451, e foi prosseguida das Cruzadas do oeste para recuperar o leste da Invasão dos Muçulmanos. A sociedade feudal começava a ruir enquanto os invasores mongóis carregavam a peste negra com eles. Os muros de Constantinopla caem em 1453, e ainda o Novo Mundo é descoberto em 1492, por iniciativa de Portugueses e Espanhóis. A Europa acorda do período medieval através do redescobrimento do ensinamento clássico. O Renascimento foi seguido da Reforma Protestante, do frade alemão Martinho Lutero, que atacou a autoridade papal. A guerra dos 30 anos, o Tratado de Vestfália e a revolução Gloriosa deram a base para uma nova era de expansão e o Iluminismo.A revolução industrial, começando na Grã-Bretanha, permitiu às pessoas, pela primeira vez, não dependerem mais de material de subsistência. O recente Império Britânico dividiu-se assim como suas colônias na América revoltadas para estabelecer um governo representativo. Uma mudança política na Europa aconteceu a partir da Revolução Francesa, quando as pessoas gritavam "Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité". O líder francês seguinte, Napoleão Bonaparte, conquistou e reformou a estrutura social do continente através de guerras até 1815 Quanto mais e mais donos de pequenas propriedades ganhavam poder de voto, na França e no Reino Unido, a atividade socialista e dos sindicatos desenvolveu-se e a revolução se instalou na Europa em 1848. Os últimos vestígios de servidão foram abolidos do Império Austríaco no mesmo ano. A servidão russa foi abolida em 1861. As nações balcânicas começaram a ganhar suas independências do Império Otomano. Depois da Guerra Franco-Prussiana, o Reino de Itália e o Império Alemão foram formadas de grupos de principados em 1870 e 1871. Conflitos desencadearam-se ao redor do globo, em uma série de impérios, até que a procura do lugar ao sol acabou com o início da Primeira Guerra Mundial. No desespero da guerra, a Revolução Russa prometia ao povo "paz, pão e terra". Além de humilhada com o Tratado de Versalhes, a Alemanha tem sua economia destruída com a grande depressão e uma nova grande guerra. Com a vitória do capitalismo e do comunismo sobre o fascismo, começou uma nova ordem mundial conhecida como guerra fria. A Europa Ocidental formou uma área de livre comércio, dividida pela Cortina de Ferro da União Soviética. Quando o muro de Berlim caiu em 1989, a Europa assinou um novo tratado de união, que em 2007, compreendia 27 países.
  • La historia de Europa se refiere al conjunto de sucesos relativos al continente europeo, desde que fue poblado por los primeros seres humanos hasta la actualidad.El Homo sapiens habría aparecido hace unos 130.000 años en África, según la opinión científica mayoritaria. La llegada del Homo sapiens a Europa podría haberse dado desde el Cercano Oriente a Europa, donde se asentaron entre 40.000 y 25.000 a. C. (Paleolítico Superior).La Antigüedad clásica está dominada por el influjo de la civilización greco-latina sobre el resto de Europa. La fragmentación política de Europa y los sucesivos intentos forzados de unificación sumieron al continente en numerosos conflictos y guerras durante la Edad Media, como la Guerra de los Cien Años (que duró más de un siglo).La Edad Moderna marca para Europa el inicio de procesos que mucho después darán lugar a la globalización, y es el tiempo en el que los conflictos bélicos se hicieron cada vez más desastrosos, como la llamada guerra de los Treinta Años. Los procesos económicos y el desarrollo científico y tecnológico se aceleraron en desmedro de otros continentes de manera mucho más notoria durante la Edad Contemporánea, produciendo tensiones por competencias que desencadenaron más guerras (como las guerras Napoleónicas y las guerras mundiales). Hoy los procesos tendentes a la unificación se procuran pacíficamente, tal es el caso de la formación de la Unión Europea, si bien no exenta de avances y retrocesos.
  • 유럽의 역사의 내용은 아래와 같다.
  • ヨーロッパ史(ヨーロッパし)とは、ヨーロッパにおける歴史である。欧州史(おうしゅうし)とも呼ばれる。
  • Avrupa tarihi Avrupa kıtasında yaşayan insanların tarih öncesinden başlayarak günümüze kadar uzanan tarihini içerir. Arkeolojik kazılar Avrupa kıtasında MÖ 35.000 yılına kadar uzanan bir insan varlığını doğrulamaktadır. Avrupa'da kayda geçmiş ilk yazılı belge olarak ise MÖ 700 yıllarında Antik Yunanistan'da Homer'in yazdığı İlyada destanı gösterilebilir. Antik Yunanistan'ın yanı sıra, MÖ 8. yüzyılda kurulmuş olan Roma Krallığı Avrupa'da kayda geçmiş ilk gelişmiş uygarlıklar arasındadır. Antik Yunanistan ve Antik Roma uygarlıkları M.S. 4. yüzyıl'da çökmüşler, aynı yüzyılda Hıristiyanlık dini Avrupa kültürünü etkisi altına almaya başlamıştır.Orta Çağ'ın başlarında Avrupa derin bir duraklama dönemine girmiş, Orta Doğu ve Asya'daki birçok gelişmiş uygarlıkların gerisinde kalmıştır. Ancak Yeni Çağ'da başlayan Rönesans ve Reform hareketlerinden sonra, Avrupa tekrar askeri, ekonomik, demokratik ve teknolojik bakımlardan dünyanın diğer bölgelerini yakalayabilmiş, daha sonra da önlerine geçmiştir. Bu üstünlüklerini kullanan Avrupa ülkeleri diğer kıtalarda koloniler kurmuş, bu kıtaların ekonomik kaynaklarını sömürerek kendi halklarına diğer kıtalara kıyasla daha yüksek bir refah düzeyi sağlamışlardır.20. yüzyıla kadar ekonomik ve askeri açılardan dünyaya egemen olan Avrupa ülkeleri, dünyanın ekonomik ve askeri liderliğini ABD'ye kaptırdılar. Ayrıca Asya kıtasındaki yükselme birden hızlandı. Önce Japonya ve Kore, sonra da Çin ve Hindistan gibi Asya ülkeleri hızla büyüyerek Avrupa'ya rakip haline geldiler. Bu arada Avrupa ülkeleri güç birliğine giderek Avrupa Birliği'ni oluşturdular. Şu an Avrupa'nın 27 ülkesini içinde barındıran Avrupa Birliği, topluca göze alındığında toplam ithalat, ihracat ve GSMH gibi açılardan dünyadaki en güçlü ekonomik birliktir.
  • The history of Europe covers the people inhabiting the European continent since it was first populated in prehistoric times to the present. The first Homo sapiens arrived between 45,000 and 25,000 BC.The earliest settlers to Prehistoric Europe came during the paleolithic era. The adoption of agriculture around 7000 BC ushered in the neolithic age. Neolithic Europe lasted for 4000 years, overlapping with metal-using cultures that gradually spread throughout the continent. Technological advances during the prehistoric age came via the Mediterranean peoples, spreading gradually to the northwest. Some of the best-known civilizations of prehistoric Europe were the Minoan and the Mycenaean, which flourished during the Bronze Age until they collapsed in a short period of time around 1200 BC.The period known as classical antiquity began with the rise of the city-states of Ancient Greece. Greek influence reached its zenith under the expansive empire of Alexander the Great, spreading throughout Asia. The Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin in a vast empire based on Roman law and Roman legions. It promoted trade, tolerance, and Greek culture. By 300 AD the Roman Empire was divided into the Western and Eastern empires. During the 4th and 5th centuries, the Germanic peoples of northern Europe grew in strength and repeated attacks led to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire in AD 476, a date which traditionally marks the end of the classical period and the start of the Middle Ages.During the Middle Ages, the Eastern Roman Empire survived, though modern historians refer to this state as the Byzantine Empire. In Western Europe, Germanic peoples moved into positions of power in the remnants of the former Western Roman Empire and established kingdoms and empires of their own. Of all of the Germanic peoples, the Franks would rise to a position of hegemony over western Europe, the Frankish Empire reaching its peak under Charlemagne around AD 800. This empire was later divided into several parts; West Francia would evolve into the Kingdom of France, while East Francia would evolve into the Holy Roman Empire, a precursor to modern Germany. The British Isles were the site of several large-scale migrations. Native Celtic peoples had been marginalized during the period of Roman Britain, and when the Romans abandoned the British Isles during the 400s, waves of Germanic Anglo-Saxons migrated to southern Britain and established a series of petty kingdoms in what would eventually develop into the Kingdom of England by AD 927. During this period, the kingdoms of Poland and Hungary were organized as well.The Viking Age, a period of migrations of Scandinavian peoples, occurred from the late 700s to the middle 1000s. Chief among the Viking states was the Empire of Cnut the Great, a Danish leader who would become king of England, Denmark, and Norway. The Normans, a Viking people who settled in Northern France and founded the Duchy of Normandy, would have a significant impact on many parts of Europe, from the Norman conquest of England to Southern Italy and Sicily. Another Scandinavian people, the Rus' people, would go on to found Kievan Rus', an early state which was a precursor for the modern country of Russia. As the Viking Age drew to a close, the period known as the Crusades, a series of religiously motivated military expeditions originally intended to bring the Levant back into Christian rule, began. Several Crusader states were founded in the eastern Mediterranean. These were all short-lived. The Crusaders would have a profound impact on many parts of Europe. Their Sack of Constantinople in 1204 brought an abrupt end to the Byzantine Empire. Though it would later be re-established, it would never recover its former glory. The Crusaders would establish trade routes that would develop into the Silk Road and open the way for the merchant republics of Genoa and Venice to become major economic powers. Crusader missions to the Baltic lands would establish the State of the Teutonic Order. The Reconquista, a related movement, worked to reconquer Iberia for Christendom.Eastern Europe in the High Middle Ages was dominated by the rise, and later fall, of the Mongol Empire. Led by Genghis Khan, the Mongols were a group of steppe nomads that established a decentralized empire that, at its height, extended from China in the east to the Black and Baltic seas in Europe. The Kievan Rus' state had broken up, replaced by several small warring states. In the face of the Mongol conquests, many of these states paid tribute to the Mongols, becoming effective vassals. As Mongol power waned towards the Late Middle Ages, the Grand Duchy of Moscow rose to become the strongest of the numerous Russian principalities and republics and would itself grow into the Tsardom of Russia in 1547. The Late Middle Ages represented a period of upheaval in Europe. The epidemic known as the Black Death and an associated famine caused demographic catastrophe in Europe as the population plummeted. Dynastic struggles and wars of conquest kept many of the states of Europe at war for much of the period. In Scandinavia, the Kalmar Union dominated the political landscape, while England fought with Scotland in the Wars of Scottish Independence and with France in the Hundred Years' War. In Central Europe, the Polish–Lithuanian union became a large territorial empire, while the Holy Roman Empire, which was an elective monarchy, came to be dominated by the House of Habsburg, who would turn it into a hereditary position in all but name. Russia continued to expand southward and eastward into former Mongol lands as well. In the Balkans, the Ottoman Empire, a Turkish state originating in Anatolia, encroached steadily on former Byzantine lands, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.Beginning roughly in the 14th century in Florence, and later spreading through Europe with the development of the printing press, a Renaissance of knowledge challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology, with the rediscovery of classical Greek and Roman knowledge. Simultaneously, the Protestant Reformation under German Martin Luther questioned Papal authority. Henry VIII sundered the English Church, allying in ensuing religious wars between German and Spanish rulers. The Reconquista of Portugal and Spain led to a series of oceanic explorations resulting in the Age of Discovery that established direct links with Africa, the Americas, and Asia, while religious wars continued to be fought in Europe, which ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia. The Spanish crown maintained its hegemony in Europe and was the leading power on the continent until the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees, which ended a conflict between Spain and France that had begun during the Thirty Years' War. An unprecedented series of major wars and political revolutions took place around Europe and indeed the world in the period between 1610 and 1700. Observers at the time, and many historians since, have argued that wars caused the revolutions.European overseas expansion led to the rise of colonial empires, producing the Columbian Exchange. The combination of resource inflows from the New World and the Industrial Revolution of Great Britain, allowed a new economy based on manufacturing instead of subsistence agriculture. Starting in 1775, British Empire colonies in America revolted to establish a representative government. Political change in continental Europe was spurred by the French Revolution under the motto liberté, égalité, fraternité. The ensuing French leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, conquered and enforced reforms through war up to 1815.The period between 1815 and 1871 saw a large number of revolutionary attempts and independence wars. In France and the United Kingdom, socialism and trade union activity developed. The last vestiges of serfdom were abolished in Russia in 1861, and Balkan nations began to regain independence from the Ottoman Empire. After the Franco-Prussian War, Germany and Italy unified into nation states, and most European states had become constitutional monarchies by 1871. Rivalry in a scramble for empires spread. The outbreak of the First World War in 1914 was precipitated by the rise of nationalism in Southeastern Europe as the Great Powers took up sides. The Allies, led by Britain and France, and joined by the United States in 1917, defeated the Central Powers led by Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1918 and imposed their terms in a series of treaties, especially the Treaty of Versailles. The human and material devastation was far greater than anyone dreamed. As Overy notes:Anyone living in Russia, Italy, Germany or the new states carved out of the Austro-Hungarian empire knew that the great war had destroyed the old political order, overturned the class balance of the pre-1914 age, and generated ideological hatreds and race prejudices that reverberated down to the end of 1945 and even beyond. Germany lost its overseas empire and several provinces, had to pay large reparations, and was humiliated by the victors. They in turn had large debts to the United States. The Great Depression broke out in 1929, and led to the collapse of democracy in state after state. The Nazi regime under Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, rearmed Germany, and sought to gain full control of the continent by demands and appeasement, and then by the Second World War.Following the Allied victory in the Second World War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain. The Central-East was dominated by the Soviet Union, which imposed communism and fear of capitalism. The rest was dominated by capitalist countries under the economic and military leadership of the United States. Both of the leading countries were superpowers. Most non-communist European countries joined a US-led military alliance (NATO) and formed the European Economic Community amongst themselves. The countries in the Soviet sphere of influence joined the military alliance known as the Warsaw Pact and the economic bloc called Comecon. Socialist parties governed some countries in the West and North of Europe from time to time, and in one case (Portugal), socialist concepts were even adopted into the country's constitution. A few small countries were neutral. The Soviet economic and political system collapsed in 1989-91, leading first to the end of communism in the satellite countries in 1989, and then to the dissolution of the Soviet Union itself in 1991. As a consequence, Germany was reunited, Europe's economic integration deepened, the continent became depolarised, and the European Union expanded to include many of the formerly communist European countries. The European Community came under increasing pressure because of the worldwide recession after 2008, with issues of financial aid to near-bankrupt countries, increasing intolerance of poorly assimilated immigrants, distrust of Germany's increasing power, tensions with Russia, rejection of Turkey's membership, and growing skepticism about the EU's future.
  • Sejarah Eropa dimulai dari sejak manusia pertama menghuni daratan Eropa pada zaman prasejarah hingga saat ini.Untuk prasejarah Eropa, manusia mulai masuk ke Eropa pada Zaman Batu Tua (Paleolitikum). Penerapan pertanian sekitar tahun 7000 SM mengantar manusia masuk Zaman Batu Muda (Neolitikum). Neolitikum di Eropa berlangsung selama 4000 tahun bersamaan dengan tersebarnya budaya penggunaan logam ke seluruh benua. Kemajuan teknologi selama zaman prasejarah datang melalui orang-orang Mediterania, menyebar secara bertahap ke arah barat laut. Beberapa peradaban paling terkenal dari prasejarah Eropa adalah peradaban Minoa dan Mykenai, yang berkembang selama Zaman Perunggu sampai keruntuhan Zaman Perunggu dalam waktu yang singkat sekitar tahun 1200 SM.Periode dalam sejarah Eropa yang dikenal sebagai era klasik dimulai dengan munculnya negara-kota Yunani Kuno. Pengaruh Yunani mencapai puncaknya di bawah kekaisaran Alexander Agung, yang menyebar ke seluruh Asia. Eropa utara dan barat didominasi oleh kebudayaan La Tène, pendahulu bangsa Kelt. Roma, sebuah negara-kota kecil, secara tradisional berdiri pada tahun 753 SM, kemudian tumbuh menjadi Republik Romawi pada 509 SM dan kemudian menggantikan kebudayaan Yunani sebagai peradaban Mediterania dominan. Peristiwa-peristiwa pada masa pemerintahan Julius Caesar mendorong reorganisasi Republik Romawi menjadi Kekaisaran Romawi. Kekaisaran ini kemudian dibagi oleh kaisar Diokletianus menjadi Kekaisaran Romawi Barat dan Kekaisaran Romawi Timur. Selama abad ke-4 dan ke-5, orang-orang Jermanik dari Eropa utara meningkatkan kekuatan dan serangan yang berulang-ulang yang menyebabkan runtuhnya Kekaisaran Romawi Barat pada tahun 476 M, saat yang secara tradisional menandai akhir dari periode klasik dan awal Abad Pertengahan.Selama Abad Pertengahan, Kekaisaran Romawi Timur bertahan, meskipun sejarawan modern menyebut negara ini sebagai Kekaisaran Bizantium. Di Eropa Barat, bangsa Jermanik menduduki bekas wilayah kekuasaan Kekaisaran Romawi Barat dan mendirikan kerajaan dan kekaisaran mereka sendiri. Dari semua bangsa Jermanik, suku Frank naik ke posisi hegemoni atas di Eropa Barat, Kerajaan Franka mencapai puncaknya di bawah pimpinan Charlemagne sekitar tahun 800 M. Kerajaan ini kemudian terbagi menjadi beberapa bagian; Franka Barat akan berevolusi menjadi Kerajaan Perancis, sementara Franka Timur akan berevolusi menjadi Kekaisaran Romawi Suci, cikal bakal Jerman modern. Kepulauan Inggris menjadi tempat beberapa migrasi skala besar. Penduduk asli Celtic telah terpinggirkan selama periode Britania Romawi, dan ketika bangsa Romawi meninggalkan Kepulauan Inggris selama tahun 400-an, gelombang bangsa Anglo-Saxon Jermanik bermigrasi ke Inggris selatan dan mendirikan serangkaian kerajaan kecil yang akhirnya berkembang menjadi Kerajaan Inggris tahun 927 M.Peradaban Yunani-Romawi menghiasi zaman permulaan Eropa, dimulai dari Yunani Kuno, yang biasanya dianggap sebagai dasar dari peradaban Barat dan pengaruhnya dalam bahasa, politik, sistem pendidikan, filsafat, ilmu pengetahuan, dan seni. Nilai-nilai tersebut diteruskan oleh Republik Roma yang berpusat di Laut Tengah, hingga Kekaisaran Romawi mencapai puncak kejayaannya sekitar tahun 150.
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  • Category:History of Europe
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  • Histoire de l'Europe
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  • Catégorie:Histoire
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  • L’histoire de l'Europe, et surtout de l’Europe méridionale, est une des parties les mieux documentées, étudiées et connues de l’histoire mondiale, pour quatre raisons : la géologie fait affleurer des roches en de nombreux endroits, ce qui a permis très tôt les constructions en pierre ; les climats permettent la bonne conservation de nombreux sites archéologiques ; l’écriture s’y est tôt imposée et de nombreux documents écrits se sont conservés ; les Européens ont eu tôt le souci de transcrire leurs histoires (Homère, Hérodote, Strabon...).C’est en Europe que les historiens européens ont défini les grandes périodes préhistoriques et historiques (Préhistoire, Antiquité, Moyen Âge...) qui valent principalement pour ce continent, celles de l’histoire africaine sub-saharienne, amérindienne précolombienne, chinoise ou indienne étant différentes.Toutefois, l’histoire européenne connaît les mêmes trois grandes « révolutions techniques » que le reste de l’histoire mondiale, chacune d’elles bouleversant profondément les modes de vie antérieurs : la « révolution du feu » intervenue (selon les hypothèses) il y a 800 000 à 400 000 ans, qui a donné au genre humain le moyen de modifier les milieux naturels (au profit du sien : la savane et la prairie), d’être un prédateur beaucoup plus efficace et de s’alimenter de nutriments cuits ; la « révolution néolithique » intervenue (selon les aires géographiques) il y a 8 000 à 2 000 ans, marquée par la sédentarisation et l’agriculture ; la « révolution industrielle », intervenue depuis deux siècles environ, et qui a donné au genre humain accès à l’énergie électrique et aux énergies fossiles et fissiles.
  • Per Storia d'Europa s'intende convenzionalmente la storia dell'omonimo continente e dei popoli che l'hanno abitato e che lo abitano. In un'accezione più ristretta per storia d'Europa si intende invece la storia dell'Unione Europea, dalla creazione della Comunità Economica Europea con i Trattati di Roma (1957) fino ad oggi.
  • Эта статья посвящена истории Европейского континента.
  • Historia Europy - opisuje historię ludzi zamieszkujących kontynent europejski od początku jego zaludnienia.Około 1,1 mln lat temu pierwszy człowiek (Homo erectus) przybył na tereny dzisiejszej Europy z Afryki pokonując Cieśninę Gibraltarską.
  • Europako historia kontinente horretan gertatutakoa kontatzen duten kondaira da. Hutsuneak hutsune, Historiaurretik Aro Garaikidera arte ongi ikertutako historia da.
  • 유럽의 역사의 내용은 아래와 같다.
  • ヨーロッパ史(ヨーロッパし)とは、ヨーロッパにおける歴史である。欧州史(おうしゅうし)とも呼ばれる。
  • Európa kulturális és gazdasági fejlődése egészen a bronzkorig nyúlik vissza. A nyugati kultúrák forrásának általában az ókori görögöket tekintik. A Római Birodalom évszázadokon keresztül birtokolta a kontinens mintegy felét. Bukása után a fejlődés hosszú időre szinte teljesen megállt, abban a korban, amit a felvilágosodás gondolkodói a sötét kornak, a mai történészek pedig egyszerűen középkornak neveznek.
  • Avrupa tarihi Avrupa kıtasında yaşayan insanların tarih öncesinden başlayarak günümüze kadar uzanan tarihini içerir. Arkeolojik kazılar Avrupa kıtasında MÖ 35.000 yılına kadar uzanan bir insan varlığını doğrulamaktadır. Avrupa'da kayda geçmiş ilk yazılı belge olarak ise MÖ 700 yıllarında Antik Yunanistan'da Homer'in yazdığı İlyada destanı gösterilebilir. Antik Yunanistan'ın yanı sıra, MÖ 8. yüzyılda kurulmuş olan Roma Krallığı Avrupa'da kayda geçmiş ilk gelişmiş uygarlıklar arasındadır.
  • Die Geschichte Europas ist die Geschichte der Menschen auf dem europäischen Kontinent, von dessen erster Besiedlung bis zur Gegenwart.Die klassische Antike begann im antiken Griechenland, das im Allgemeinen als der Beginn der westlichen Zivilisation angesehen wird und einen immensen Einfluss auf Sprache, Politik, Erziehungssysteme, Philosophie, Naturwissenschaften und Künste ausübte.
  • The history of Europe covers the people inhabiting the European continent since it was first populated in prehistoric times to the present. The first Homo sapiens arrived between 45,000 and 25,000 BC.The earliest settlers to Prehistoric Europe came during the paleolithic era. The adoption of agriculture around 7000 BC ushered in the neolithic age. Neolithic Europe lasted for 4000 years, overlapping with metal-using cultures that gradually spread throughout the continent.
  • La historia de Europa se refiere al conjunto de sucesos relativos al continente europeo, desde que fue poblado por los primeros seres humanos hasta la actualidad.El Homo sapiens habría aparecido hace unos 130.000 años en África, según la opinión científica mayoritaria. La llegada del Homo sapiens a Europa podría haberse dado desde el Cercano Oriente a Europa, donde se asentaron entre 40.000 y 25.000 a. C.
  • A História da Europa descreve a passagem no tempo desde os primeiros humanos que habitaram o continente europeu até a atualidade. A primeira evidência do Homo sapiens na Europa data de 35 000 a.C. O relato mais antigo feito sobre o continente é a Ilíada, de Homero, da Antiga Grécia, que data de 700 a.C. A República Romana foi estabelecida em 509 a.C., e transformada no Novo Império de Otaviano na primeira metade do século I. A religião cristã foi adotada no século IV.
  • Sejarah Eropa dimulai dari sejak manusia pertama menghuni daratan Eropa pada zaman prasejarah hingga saat ini.Untuk prasejarah Eropa, manusia mulai masuk ke Eropa pada Zaman Batu Tua (Paleolitikum). Penerapan pertanian sekitar tahun 7000 SM mengantar manusia masuk Zaman Batu Muda (Neolitikum). Neolitikum di Eropa berlangsung selama 4000 tahun bersamaan dengan tersebarnya budaya penggunaan logam ke seluruh benua.
  • La història d'Europa tracta del conjunt de fets relatius al continent europeu i de les cultures i civilitzacions que s'hi van establir, fins a l'actualitat.Segons l'historiador anglès Eric Hobsbawm, la història d'Europa com entitat començaria amb la caiguda de l'Imperi Romà d'Occident i amb la ruptura permanent entre les dues ribes de la Mediterrània, després de la conquesta musulmana del nord d'Àfrica.
  • Dit artikel is een overzicht van de (menselijke) geschiedenis van het werelddeel Europa. Deze valt ruwweg chronologisch in te delen in de prehistorie, de klassieke oudheid, de middeleeuwen, de nieuwe tijd, de moderne tijd en de eigentijdse tijd.Een Europese economische eenheid bestond in de oudheid in de vorm van het Romeinse handelsnetwerk; dit besloeg echter vooral het zuidelijke deel van het continent.
rdfs:label
  • Histoire de l'Europe
  • Avrupa tarihi
  • Dějiny Evropy
  • Europako historia
  • Európa történelme
  • Geschichte Europas
  • Geschiedenis van Europa
  • Historia Europy
  • Historia de Europa
  • History of Europe
  • Història d'Europa
  • História da Europa
  • Sejarah Eropa
  • Storia dell'Europa
  • История Европы
  • ヨーロッパ史
  • 유럽의 역사
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