William Murray, SL, PC, né le 2 mars 1705 et mort le 20 mars 1793, 1er comte de Mansfield, est un barrister, homme politique et juge britannique connu pour sa réforme de la loi anglaise. Né dans la noblesse écossaise, il reçoit son éducation à Perth avant de déménager à l'âge de 13 ans pour étudier à la Westminster School.

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  • William Murray, SL, PC, né le 2 mars 1705 et mort le 20 mars 1793, 1er comte de Mansfield, est un barrister, homme politique et juge britannique connu pour sa réforme de la loi anglaise. Né dans la noblesse écossaise, il reçoit son éducation à Perth avant de déménager à l'âge de 13 ans pour étudier à la Westminster School. Il est accepté au collège Christ Church de l'université d'Oxford en mai 1723, et acquiert rapidement une bonne réputation en tant que barrister.Impliqué dans la politique à partir de 1742, il est tout d'abord élu Membre du Parlement (« MP ») pour le borough de Boroughbridge, et est choisi pour le poste d'Avocat général. En l'absence d'un Procureur général assez puissant, il devient le principal porte-parole pour le gouvernement à la Chambre des communes, où il se fait remarquer pour son « grand talent d'éloquence » et est décrit comme « le meilleur orateur sans comparaison » de la Chambre. À la suite de la promotion de Sir Dudley Ryder en tant que Lord Chef de la Justice, il devient Procureur général, et lorsque Ryder meurt de manière inattendue quelques mois plus tard, c'est Mansfield qui prend sa place.En tant que Lord Chef de la Justice, Mansfield modernise à la fois la loi anglaise et le système des tribunaux anglais ; il accélère les dépôts de requêtes et réforme la manière dont les jugements sont donnés afin de réduire leur durée et leurs coûts pour les parties. À la suite des procès Carter vs Boehm et Pillans vs Van Mierop, il est considéré comme le fondateur du droit commercial anglais. Il est probablement plus connu pour son jugement dans l'affaire Somersett, où il conclut que l'esclavage est illégal en Angleterre (bien que cela n'arrête pas le trafic).
  • 윌리엄 머리 경(1705년 3월 2일 – 1793년 3월 20일)은 영국의 변호사, 판사, 정치인이다. 제1대 맨스필드 백작이며, 영국법을 개혁한 인물로 매우 유명하다.영국 대법관(Lord Chief Justice)을 지냈다. 영국에서 Lord Chief Justice는 Lord Chancellor 다음으로 사법부의 2인자로서, 고위귀족인 대법관(lord chief justice)이 국가의 사법체계를 책임지고 그 아래로 각 주에 파견된 고등판사(justiciar)가 있었다.윌리엄 머리는 "자유란 법치 정부 아래 사는 것이다"라고 말했다.
  • William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, SL, PC (2 March 1705 – 20 March 1793) was a British barrister, politician and judge noted for his reform of English law. Born to Scottish nobility, he was educated in Perth, Scotland before moving to London at the age of 13 to take up a place at Westminster School. He was accepted into Christ Church, Oxford, in May 1723, and graduated four years later. Returning to London from Oxford, he was called to the Bar by Lincoln's Inn on 23 November 1730, and quickly gained a reputation as an excellent barrister.He became involved in politics in 1742, beginning with his election as a Member of Parliament for Boroughbridge, and appointment as Solicitor General. In the absence of a strong Attorney General, he became the main spokesman for the government in the House of Commons, and was noted for his "great powers of eloquence" and described as "beyond comparison the best speaker" in the House of Commons. With the promotion of Sir Dudley Ryder to Lord Chief Justice in 1754, he became Attorney General, and when Ryder unexpectedly died several months later, he took his place as Chief Justice.The most powerful British jurist of the century, his decisions reflected the Age of Enlightenment and moved England on the path to abolishing slavery and the slave trade. He advanced commercial law in ways that helped establish the nation as the world leader in industry, finance and trade. He modernised both English law and the English courts system; he sped up the system for submitting motions and reformed the way judgments were given to reduce time and expense for the parties. For his work in Carter v Boehm and Pillans v Van Mierop, he has been called the founder of English commercial law. He is perhaps best known for his judgment in Somersett's Case, where he held that slavery was unlawful in England (although this did not end slave trafficking altogether).
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  • Conserving culture and copyright: a partial history
  • Lord Mansfield and the Law Merchant: Law and Economics in the Eighteenth Century
  • A Biographical Dictionary of the Justices of England
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  • William Murray, SL, PC, né le 2 mars 1705 et mort le 20 mars 1793, 1er comte de Mansfield, est un barrister, homme politique et juge britannique connu pour sa réforme de la loi anglaise. Né dans la noblesse écossaise, il reçoit son éducation à Perth avant de déménager à l'âge de 13 ans pour étudier à la Westminster School.
  • 윌리엄 머리 경(1705년 3월 2일 – 1793년 3월 20일)은 영국의 변호사, 판사, 정치인이다. 제1대 맨스필드 백작이며, 영국법을 개혁한 인물로 매우 유명하다.영국 대법관(Lord Chief Justice)을 지냈다. 영국에서 Lord Chief Justice는 Lord Chancellor 다음으로 사법부의 2인자로서, 고위귀족인 대법관(lord chief justice)이 국가의 사법체계를 책임지고 그 아래로 각 주에 파견된 고등판사(justiciar)가 있었다.윌리엄 머리는 "자유란 법치 정부 아래 사는 것이다"라고 말했다.
  • William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, SL, PC (2 March 1705 – 20 March 1793) was a British barrister, politician and judge noted for his reform of English law. Born to Scottish nobility, he was educated in Perth, Scotland before moving to London at the age of 13 to take up a place at Westminster School. He was accepted into Christ Church, Oxford, in May 1723, and graduated four years later.
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  • William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield
  • 윌리엄 머리
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