Le conflit sexuel, ou coévolution antagoniste dans le cadre sexuel, est un concept forgé en écologie évolutive qui souligne que les organismes vivants sexués présentent une divergence d'intérêts dans l'évolution. Selon cette théorie il existe une rivalité entre les mâles, une concurrence entre femelles et un conflit entre mâles et femelles. C'est la « guerre des sexes ».

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  • Le conflit sexuel, ou coévolution antagoniste dans le cadre sexuel, est un concept forgé en écologie évolutive qui souligne que les organismes vivants sexués présentent une divergence d'intérêts dans l'évolution. Selon cette théorie il existe une rivalité entre les mâles, une concurrence entre femelles et un conflit entre mâles et femelles. C'est la « guerre des sexes ». Tandis que les mâles peuvent augmenter leur nombre de descendants en multipliant les partenaires sexuels, les femelles ne peuvent accroitre leur descendance par la polyandrie. Chez les drosophiles par exemple, la compétition spermatique entre les mâles peut conduire à la production d'un sperme toxique qui altère la qualité du sperme d'un prédécesseur, mais la toxicité de ce sperme peut à son tour perturber la femelle au point de réduire sa survie. Le corps de la femelle est ici le lieu de cette guerre des sexes.Ce conflit sexuel a pour conséquence une augmentation de la reproduction d'un sexe au détriment de l'autre. Il en résulte un processus dit de « coévolution antagoniste », où l'évolution d'un sexe perturbe le succès reproductif de l'autre selon un modèle évolutif de « course aux armements » ou de « tir à la corde ». Alors que le conflit est regardé par les néodarwinistes comme un simple évènement de la sélection sexuelle, Thierry Lodé étend le concept de conflit d'intérêt à tous les processus de coévolution et d'interactions antagonistes identifiés comme autant de sources des processus évolutifs. Le conflit agirait notamment à travers le déplacement de caractères reproducteurs ou écologiques.
  • Sexual conflict or sexual antagonism occurs when the two sexes have conflicting optimal fitness strategies concerning reproduction, particularly over the mode and frequency of mating, potentially leading to an evolutionary arms race between males and females. For instance, males may benefit from multiple matings, while multiple matings may harm or endanger females. The development of an evolutionary arms race can also be seen in the chase-away sexual selection model, which places inter-sexual conflicts in the context of secondary sexual characteristic evolution, sensory exploitation, and female resistance. According to chase-away selection, continuous sexual conflict creates an environment in which mating frequency and male secondary sexual trait development are somewhat in step with the female’s degree of resistance. It has primarily been studied in animals, though it can in principle apply to any sexually reproducing organism, such as plants and fungi.Sexual conflict/antagonism can be in two forms:Interlocus sexual conflict is the interaction of a set of antagonistic alleles at one or more loci in males and females. An example is conflict over mating rates. Males frequently have a higher optimal mating rate than females because in most animal species, they invest fewer resources in offspring than their female counterparts. Therefore, males have numerous adaptations to induce females to mate with them. Another well-documented example of inter-locus sexual conflict is the seminal fluid of Drosophila melanogaster, which up-regulates females' egg-laying rate and reduces her desire to re-mate with another male (serving the male's interests), but also shortens the female's lifespan reducing her fitness.Intralocus sexual conflict This kind of conflict represents a tug of war between natural selection on both sexes and sexual selection on one sex. For example, the bill color in Zebra finches etc. Ornamentation could be costly to produce, it is important in mate choice but also makes an individual vulnerable to predators, the alleles for such phenotypic traits are under antagonistic selection and this conflict is resolved via elaborate sexual dimorphism thus maintaining sexually antagonistic alleles in the population. Evidence indicates that intralocus conflict may be an important constraint in the evolution of many traits.Sexual conflict may lead to antagonistic co-evolution, in which one sex (usually male) evolves a favorable trait that is offset by a countering trait in the other sex. Similarly, interlocus sexual conflict can be the result of what is called a perpetual cycle. The perpetual cycle begins with the traits that favor male reproductive competition, which eventually manifests into male persistence. These favorable traits will cause a reduction in the fitness of females due to their persistence. Following this event, females may develop a counter-adaptation, that is, a favorable trait that reduces the direct costs implemented by males. This is known as female resistance. After this event, females' fitness depression decreases, and the cycle starts again. Interlocus sexual conflict reflects interactions among mates to achieve their optimal fitness strategies and can be explained through evolutionary concepts.Sensory exploitation by males is one mechanism that involves males attempting to overcome female reluctance. It can result in chase-away selection, which then leads to a co-evolutionary arms race. There are also other mechanisms involved in sexual conflict such as traumatic insemination, forced copulation, penis fencing, love darts and others.Female resistance traditionally includes reducing negative effects to mechanisms implemented by males, but outside the norm may include sexual cannibalism, increased fitness in females on offspring and increased aggression to males.Animal species that are not in a state of sexual conflict are more likely to be in sync to the male dominance hierarchy as the females are more docile in these organizations such as wolves, common rabbits and crocodiles. Others, such as spiders, ants and orcas are female-dominated. Some regard sexual conflict as a subset of sexual selection (which was traditionally regarded as mutualistic), while others suggest it is a separate evolutionary phenomenon.
  • 性的対立あるいはセクシャル・コンフリクトとは男女間、雌雄間で繁殖に関する最適戦略が異なるときに起きる進化的な対立のことであり、両性間に進化的軍拡競走を引き起こす原因となる。性的葛藤とも訳される。この原理はヒトや植物を含めた全ての有性生殖生物に当てはめることができるが、主に動物で研究されている。かつては種の保存のために雌雄間の関係は友好的なものと考えられていた。しかし種の保存論理がの誤りが明らかになり、個体選択、遺伝子選択の再評価と提案によって異性間における進化的な利害の対立が明らかとなった。
  • Conflito sexual ocorre quando os diferentes sexos da mesma espécie possuem estratégias de optimização da aptidão diferentes em relação à reprodução, levando a uma corrida ao armamento evolutiva entre machos e fêmeas.
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  • Le conflit sexuel, ou coévolution antagoniste dans le cadre sexuel, est un concept forgé en écologie évolutive qui souligne que les organismes vivants sexués présentent une divergence d'intérêts dans l'évolution. Selon cette théorie il existe une rivalité entre les mâles, une concurrence entre femelles et un conflit entre mâles et femelles. C'est la « guerre des sexes ».
  • 性的対立あるいはセクシャル・コンフリクトとは男女間、雌雄間で繁殖に関する最適戦略が異なるときに起きる進化的な対立のことであり、両性間に進化的軍拡競走を引き起こす原因となる。性的葛藤とも訳される。この原理はヒトや植物を含めた全ての有性生殖生物に当てはめることができるが、主に動物で研究されている。かつては種の保存のために雌雄間の関係は友好的なものと考えられていた。しかし種の保存論理がの誤りが明らかになり、個体選択、遺伝子選択の再評価と提案によって異性間における進化的な利害の対立が明らかとなった。
  • Conflito sexual ocorre quando os diferentes sexos da mesma espécie possuem estratégias de optimização da aptidão diferentes em relação à reprodução, levando a uma corrida ao armamento evolutiva entre machos e fêmeas.
  • Sexual conflict or sexual antagonism occurs when the two sexes have conflicting optimal fitness strategies concerning reproduction, particularly over the mode and frequency of mating, potentially leading to an evolutionary arms race between males and females. For instance, males may benefit from multiple matings, while multiple matings may harm or endanger females.
rdfs:label
  • Conflit sexuel
  • Conflito sexual
  • Sexual conflict
  • 性的対立
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