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Grégoire II le Martyrophile Gregor II. Vkayaser Gregory II the Martyrophile Grigor II Vkayasser
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Gregory II the Martyrophile was the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church between 1066 and 1105. On the death of Khachig II the Byzantines had hoped to leave Armenia without a pontiff for good, part of an effort to subdue them as a people and assimilate them into the Greek rite. However, Mary the daughter of King Gagik-Abas of Kars was a favorite of Byzantine Empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa and obtained through her influence the permission to fill the empty seat. Grigor II Vkayasser (el martiròfil) fou patriarca de l'església armènia del 1065 al 1105.L'emperador bizantí Constantí X Ducas convençut que no podia aconseguir la reunificació de l'església ortodoxa i l'església armènia va sancionar la nominació de Grigor Vahram, fill del famós Grigor Magistros (Gregori Magistros) com a governador general de l'Imperi però amb la condició que el nou catolikos, Grigor II Vkayasser no podria restar a l'Armènia musulmana. Vahram Pahlavuni (armenisch: Գրիգոր Բ Վկայասեր; † 5. Dezember 1105 im Kloster Karmir Vanq bei Kessoun) war 1065 bis 1105 als Gregor II. Vkayaser Katholikos der armenischen Kirche.Er war ein Sohn des Gregorios Magistros Pahlavuni, des Strategos von Mesopotamien. Er diente in der byzantinischen Armee, trat aber dann ins Kloster ein.Mt Zustimmung des Kaisers Konstantin X. Grégoire II le Martyrophile ou Grigor II Vikaïasser (en arménien Գրիգոր Բ Վկայասեր) est le Catholicos de l'Église apostolique arménienne de 1065 à 1105.
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Grégoire II le Martyrophile ou Grigor II Vikaïasser (en arménien Գրիգոր Բ Վկայասեր) est le Catholicos de l'Église apostolique arménienne de 1065 à 1105. Gregory II the Martyrophile was the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church between 1066 and 1105. On the death of Khachig II the Byzantines had hoped to leave Armenia without a pontiff for good, part of an effort to subdue them as a people and assimilate them into the Greek rite. However, Mary the daughter of King Gagik-Abas of Kars was a favorite of Byzantine Empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa and obtained through her influence the permission to fill the empty seat. A meeting of the clergy elected Gregory the Martyrophile, son of Gregorius Magistratus, as pontiff. Gregory had been engaged in literary pursuits from a young age, had been honored by the emperor as a Duke, and had succeeded his father on his death as governor of Mesopotamia. He had grown tired of the world and embraced a monastic life. On his election he changed his original name of Vahram to Gregory in honor of Gregory the Illuminator. His name the Martyrophile came from his having compiled the memoirs of Christian martyrs. The Byzantine army invaded again and Gregory abdicated in 1071 since he was unable to stave off these problems. He appointed a monk George Lorensis as his successor and retired to a mountain around Tarsus. He was still regarded by the Armenian people as pontiff however and they referred to him for advice. Lorensis was offended by this and took imprudent measures as a response, at which point the clergy met at Gregory's retreat and deposed Lorensis. He had reigned for two years and Gregory resumed the office officially. At this same time a monk named Sarkis exercised control in his local region as pontiff and was succeeded by Theodorus, but none of them nor Lorensis are considered canon pontiffs. Shortly after regaining his position as pontiff around 1074, Gregory made a visit to Ani which at that point was in the hands of the Persians and resided there a few months. He then returned home and wrote a letter to Pope Gregory VII, who responded in a friendly manner. Gregory II traveled to Rome to visit the Pope who was very curious to learn about the Armenian church. After a few months, Gregory II then made pilgrimage to Jerusalem and then went to Memphis, Egypt where he lived for a year. He appointed a nephew of his, Gregorius, as prelate at Memphis and then finally returned home. With Gregory II living in Tarsus, the eastern Armenians considered themselves without a pontiff and obtained his sanction to elect his nephew, Parsegh bishop of Ani, as their pontiff. Two years later, a prince who settled in Marash elected Paul, abbot of Varagavank, to be considered pontiff of the church in that region. This means there were now four pontiffs of the Armenian church: Gregory II in the region of Mount Tarsus, Parsegh his nephew in Ani for the eastern Armenians, the previously-mentioned Theodorus, and Paul in Marash. There was much enmity between them and the cause of much confusion. Paul saw this and decided to relinquish his seat and retire to his convent, at which time the nation at large recognized Gregory II alone as pontiff, with Parsegh as his deputy. In 1087 Parsegh deposed Theodorus and settled at Edessa. In 1103, after many requests, Gregory II finally accepted the invitation of Basil the Sly to move his residence to Rapan, in the vicinity of the city of Cheson, to spend his last years. As he left his Tarsus monastery, he took with him wards Gregory III of Cilicia and Nerses IV the Graceful, in whom he recognized future greatness. He entrusted the two preteens to the care of his nephew and deputy Parsegh as well as to his host Basil, and stated that on his death Parsegh should be made Catholicos and after him should follow young Gregory. He died shortly after and was buried there at the red convent at Rapan near Cheson. Grigor II Vkayasser (el martiròfil) fou patriarca de l'església armènia del 1065 al 1105.L'emperador bizantí Constantí X Ducas convençut que no podia aconseguir la reunificació de l'església ortodoxa i l'església armènia va sancionar la nominació de Grigor Vahram, fill del famós Grigor Magistros (Gregori Magistros) com a governador general de l'Imperi però amb la condició que el nou catolikos, Grigor II Vkayasser no podria restar a l'Armènia musulmana. Grigor es va establir a Zamintia (Dsamentav) al regne de Kars, i més tard a Amàsia, a la costa bizantina de la Mar Negra.Va governar l'església per quaranta anys però no va fer cap actuació especialment rellevant; era molt intel·ligent i estudiós, i dedicava a la feina el temps que no passava estudiant. Va fer viatges a Terra Santa i Egipte deixant les seves tasques a subordinats entre els quals el seu nebot Barsel d'Ani (Basili d'Ani) que era especialment hàbil. Del 1069 al 1072 va ocupar el patriarcat Georg II de Lori (1069-1072) i després Sargis II d'Honi (1076-1077) i Theodoros II d'Alakhosik (1077-1090).Va morir el 1105 i fou el seu nebot qui el va succeir. Vahram Pahlavuni (armenisch: Գրիգոր Բ Վկայասեր; † 5. Dezember 1105 im Kloster Karmir Vanq bei Kessoun) war 1065 bis 1105 als Gregor II. Vkayaser Katholikos der armenischen Kirche.Er war ein Sohn des Gregorios Magistros Pahlavuni, des Strategos von Mesopotamien. Er diente in der byzantinischen Armee, trat aber dann ins Kloster ein.Mt Zustimmung des Kaisers Konstantin X. wurde er auf dem Konzil in Tzamandos in Kappadokien, dem Sitz des ausgewanderten armenischen Königs Gagik von Kars, zum Katholikos gewählt, nachdem das Amt fünf Jahre lang vakant gewesen war. Er erhielt den Beinamen Vkayaser („Märtyrerfreund“), weil er mit großem Eifer Reliquien und Heiligenlegenden sammelte. Er sah sich jedoch der Opposition der byzantinisch-orthodoxen Bischöfe, und vor allem von Johannes VIII., dem Patriarchen von Konstantinopel ausgesetzt. 1071 zog er sich wieder ins Kloster zurück, nachdem er seinen Vertrauten Georg von Lori zu seinem Nachfolger ernannt hatte.Nachdem er von der byzantinischen Niederlage bei Mantzikert 1071 erfahren hatte, übernahm er sein vorheriges Amt wieder, nahm seinen Sitz in einem Kloster auf dem „Schwarzen Berg“ in Kilikien und begann, für eine konzertierte Aktion gegen die Seldschuken zu werben. Er besuchte dazu Ägypten, das Heilige Land und Konstantinopel. Nach Matthias von Edessa (Chronik 2, 108) reiste Vahram auch nach Rom, dies wird aber von den meisten Historikern als unwahrscheinlich abgelehnt. Nach einer anderen Quelle traf er sich mit Papst Silvester.Gregor II. schickte nach anderen Quellen einen Priester namens Johannes als Botschafter zu Papst Gregor VII. nach Rom, um ihn um Hilfe gegen die Seldschuken zu bitten. Der Papst hörte ihn an, machte zahlreiche liturgische Änderungsvorschläge, aber schickte ihn mit einem Pallium zurück nach Kleinasien.Gregor II. setzte seinen Neffen Barsegh (1081–1105) als Bischof im seldschukisch besetzten Ani ein.1103 besuchte er Edessa, wo er von Balduin II. prunkvoll empfangen wurde.In seinen letzten Jahren lebte Vahram zunehmend zurückgezogen. Er starb am 5. Dezember 1105 im Kloster Karmir Vanq bei Kessoun. Sein Neffe Barsegh von Ani stand seinem Begräbnis vor und wurde damit zum anerkannten neuen Katholikos.
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