L'unification de l'Allemagne, sous la forme d'un État-nation, eut officiellement lieu le 18 janvier 1871 dans la galerie des Glaces du château de Versailles, en France. Les princes allemands s'y rassemblèrent après leur victoire lors de la Guerre franco-prussienne pour proclamer Guillaume Ier de Prusse empereur du nouvel Empire allemand.

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  • L'unification de l'Allemagne, sous la forme d'un État-nation, eut officiellement lieu le 18 janvier 1871 dans la galerie des Glaces du château de Versailles, en France. Les princes allemands s'y rassemblèrent après leur victoire lors de la Guerre franco-prussienne pour proclamer Guillaume Ier de Prusse empereur du nouvel Empire allemand. Cependant, le processus de rassemblement des populations germanophones d'Europe avait commencé depuis le début du siècle.Le Saint-Empire romain germanique, qui regroupait plus de 300 entités politiques indépendantes, fut effectivement dissous après l'abdication de François II le 6 août 1806 au cours de la Troisième Coalition menée contre Napoléon Bonaparte. En dépit des bouleversements politiques, administratifs et légaux qui suivirent la fin de l'Empire, les habitants des régions germanophones de l'ancien empire possédaient des traditions linguistiques et culturelles communes qui furent approfondies par leurs expériences partagées lors des guerres de la Révolution française et des campagnes napoléoniennes. Le libéralisme offrait une base intellectuelle pour l'unification en concurrençant les modèles dynastiques et absolutistes d'organisation sociale et politique. Économiquement, la création du Zollverein (union douanière) prussienne en 1818 et son expansion ultérieure aux États de la Confédération germanique réduisirent la compétition entre ces derniers. L'émergence de nouveaux modes de transport facilita le commerce et les rencontres parfois hostiles entre les germanophones d'Europe centrale.Le modèle des sphères d'influences diplomatiques résultant du congrès de Vienne en 1814-1815 à la suite des guerres napoléoniennes établissait la domination autrichienne sur l'Europe centrale. Cependant, les négociateurs à Vienne sous-évaluèrent les conséquences de la puissance grandissante de la Prusse au sein des États allemands, et n'anticipèrent pas que celle-ci pourrait concurrencer l'Autriche pour fédérer ces derniers. Cette rivalité proposait deux solutions au problème de l'unification : la Solution petite-allemande (Allemagne sans l'Autriche) ou la Solution grande-allemande (Allemagne et Autriche).Les historiens continuent à débattre pour savoir si Otto von Bismarck, le ministre-président de Prusse, avait un plan défini pour étendre la Confédération de l'Allemagne du Nord de 1866 aux derniers États allemands au sein d'une unique entité ou s'il souhaitait simplement étendre le pouvoir du royaume de Prusse. Ils concluent que de nombreux facteurs associés à la force de la Realpolitik de Bismarck menèrent de nombreux petits États allemands à réorganiser leurs armées, leurs systèmes politiques, économiques et leurs relations diplomatiques au XIXe siècle. La réaction aux nationalismes français et danois fournit un moteur pour l'expression de l'unité allemande. Les succès militaires, principalement prussiens, dans trois guerres régionales générèrent de l'enthousiasme et de la fierté que les politiciens purent utiliser pour promouvoir l'unification. Cette expérience faisait écho aux accomplissements communs lors des guerres napoléoniennes et en particulier lors de la Sixième Coalition en 1813-1814. En établissant la solution petite-allemande, l'unification politique et administrative de 1871 résolut au moins temporairement le problème du dualisme germanique entre l'Allemagne, d'une part, et l'Autriche, d'autre part.
  • ドイツ統一(ドイツとういつ)は、ドイツ人がホーエンツォレルン朝プロイセン王国の国王ヴィルヘルム1世をドイツ帝国の皇帝として戴くことを決め、ドイツ人の統一国家を1871年に成立させたことを指す。1990年に西ドイツと東ドイツの統一がなされて以来、「ドイツ統一」は特に日本国内においてはこれを意味して使用する場合が多くなっているが、ドイツなどでは「ドイツ統一」(独: Deutsche Reichsgründung, 英: Unification of Germany)は1871年のドイツ統一のみを指す。歴史用語・政治用語としても1990年のものは「ドイツ再統一」(独: Deutsche Wiedervereinigung, 英: German reunification)と呼ばれ、明確に区別されている。
  • La Unificación de Alemania fue un proceso histórico que tuvo lugar en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y que culminó con la creación del Imperio alemán el 18 de enero de 1871.Antes de la formación de un estado nacional unificado, el territorio de Alemania se encontraba dividido en un mosaico político formado por 39 estados. Entre ellos destacaban, por su importancia económica y política, Austria y Prusia. Desde principios del siglo XIX, tras las guerras napoleónicas, fue imponiéndose la idea de unificar las distintas organizaciones políticas herederas del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico en un solo estado alemán. Un paso importante en este proceso fue la formación de un mercado único en la región. A ello contribuyó, sobre todo, la aristocracia terrateniente: los junkers) de Prusia y la burguesía industrial de la cuenca del Ruhr. En 1834 se produjo la unificación aduanera que sumó Prusia a otras regiones alemanas previamente asociadas. Sin embargo, debido a las diferencias entre Austria y Prusia, el proceso de unificación política no pudo llevarse a cabo en la primera mitad del siglo XIX. Desde 1848 fue cada vez más intensa la actividad de grupos nacionalistas que alentaban la formación de un único estado para todos los alemanes.Sin embargo, el liberalismo era una gran amenaza para las intenciones monárquicas de Austria y Prusia, por lo que crearon alianzas para el control gubernamental de cada nación: La Santa Alianza. El tratado fue firmado el 26 de septiembre de 1815, por el emperador Francisco I de Austria, el rey Federico Guillermo III de Prusia y el zar Alejandro I de Rusia, que fue su principal promotor. Estas tres potencias estaban unidas por una Santa Alianza. Aunque éste era un asunto político, tenía mucho que ver con lo religioso, puesto que la idea de este acuerdo era completar el proceso de restauración y pacificación de Europa ,pero a través de ideas cristianas tanto en asuntos internos como externos. A este acuerdo se unieron después otros reinos europeos. La Cuádruple Alianza (no debe ser confundida con la alianza de países liberales creada precisamente para oponerse a la Santa Alianza). Estaba formada por la Santa Alianza, a la que se sumó Inglaterra. Su principal promotor fue el premier británico Castlereagh. Las bases fueron, entre otras, mantener incluso por la fuerza los cambios impuestos por el Congreso de Viena y vigilar las ideologías liberales. La Quíntuple Alianza. En esta alianza participaron las cuatro potencias y Francia, que había recuperado su monarquía. Su principal promotor fue Metternich. El tratado fue firmado en 1818. Con esta alianza se buscaba acabar con cualquier movimiento liberal que perjudicara al sistema monárquico. Esto proporcionaba a las alianzas la capacidad de intervenir en cualquier nación si era necesario.Prusia y Austria eran muy distintas en los aspectos económicos, sociales y políticos. Austria estaba dirigida por una monarquía de corte centralista y autoritario, que gobernaba un territorio habitado por diferentes pueblos —eslavos, alemanes, húngaros, rumanos e italianos— que tenían distintas lenguas, religiones y costumbres. Esto fue motivo de frecuentes sublevaciones contra la monarquía austriaca, ya que el principal reclamo era el derecho a la formación de sus propios Estados nacionales.En lo económico, Austria era un país que no contaba con recursos ni con una burguesía poderosa capaz de lograr un desarrollo industrial propio. El mantenimiento de un ejército y una administración que garantizasen la unidad imperial le creó graves dificultades financieras. Prusia, en cambio, experimentó un desarrollo económico muy intenso, que hizo de ella el centro del crecimiento industrial de la región. El aumento de la producción de acero, carbón y hierro, en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, así lo demostró.Las comunicaciones —ferrocarriles, barcos de vapor, telégrafos— crecieron de tal modo, que permitieron la formación de un activo mercado económico. Además la población prusiana era mucho más homogénea que la austriaca, ya que no existían pueblos tan diferentes en su lengua, religión y costumbres. El desarrollo económico prusiano tuvo otras consecuencias: la consolidación de una burguesía industrial, aliada a los terratenientes (junkers), y el predominio en su gobierno de ideas liberales, que buscaban la formación definitiva de un Estado nacional.
  • Sjednocení Německa, kterým došlo k politickému a administrativnímu sjednocení německých států do národního státu, bylo oficiálně oznámeno 18. ledna 1871 v zrcadlové síni paláce Versailles ve Francii, kde německá knížata slavnostně prohlásila Viléma I. Pruského německým císařem po kapitulaci Francie v prusko-francouzské válce. Sjednocení Německa, kterým většina německy mluvícího obyvatelstva vstoupila do spolkové Německé říše, proběhla v období jednoho století.Svatá říše římská zanikla po Prešpurském míru a abdikaci císaře Františka II. roku 1806 během napoleonských válek a byla nahrazena Rýnským spolkem pod protektorátem Napoleona I. Po porážce Napoleona I. roku 1814 a 1815 byl na Vídeňském kongresu založen velmi volný Německý spolek, jehož sněmy se konaly ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem pod předsednictvím rakouského císaře. Model „sfér vlivu“ a rovnováhy sil, vytvořený na Vídeňském kongresu v letech 1814 a 1815 po napoleonských válkách, učinil Rakouské císařství dominantní mocností ve střední Evropě. Vídeň však nebrala v úvahu narůstající sílu Pruska a neuvědomila si, že Prusko může konkurovat Rakousku jako vůdčí mocnost mezi německými státy. Tento německý dualismus nabízel dvojí řešení národního sjednocení Německa (a jednu variantu vylučující jak Rakousko tak Prusko): Maloněmecká koncepce (Kleindeutsche Lösung) „malé Německo“, které nezahrnovalo rakouské země, Velkoněmecká koncepce (Großdeutsche Lösung) čili „velké Německo“ se zahrnutím rakouských (a tím pádem i českých) zemí. koncepce třetího Německa tj. Německa bez Pruska i Rakouska, tato myšlenka se však téměř neujala.↑ ↑
  • Penyatuan Jerman terjadi pada tanggal 18 Januari 1871, ketika Perdana Menteri Kerajaan Prusia, Otto von Bismarck berhasil menyatukan beberapa negara Jerman menjadi satu negara, dan mendirikan Kekaisaran Jerman. Seluruh Jerman, kecuali Austria, berhasil disatukan. Otto von Bismarck menjadi kanselir Jerman sesudah penyatuan ini.
  • Обединението на Германия от 1871 г. се състои в създаването на една общогерманска национална държава под управлението на Ото фон Бисмарк през 1866 (Северногермански съюз) и през 1871 (Германска империя).Обединението на Германия е целта на либерали и студенти още от Освободителните войни през 1813 г. Въпреки това гражданското съсловие се проваля в първите си опити (Мартенска революция, Франкфуртско национално събрание).Обединението трябвало да премине през 3 военни конфликта. В първия от тях Прусия в съюз с Австрия се изправила срещу Дания в борба за населените с германци херцогства Шлезвинг и Холщайн. Вторият бил през Април 1866 г., когато пруският министър-президент Бисмарк провокирал австрийците към военен конфликт. На 3 юли 1866 г. при градчето Садова австрийската армия претърпяла поражение.Прусия анексирала Хановер , Хесен , Насау и Франкфурт - създаден бил Северногерманският съюз. Единственият съперник оставала Франция. Наполеон III в никакъв случай не искал на източната си граница една обединена и агресивна Германия. На 19 юли 1870 г. Франция обявила война на Бисмарк. Пруската армия била много по-добре подготвена, разполагала с отлични военни планове и блестящо ръководство, докато френската мобилизация била хаотична, а генералите - самонадеяни и бездарни. Резултатите били - разгром на френската армия и вземането в плен на Наполеон III. На 18 януари 1871 г. в Огледалната зала на двореца Версай било обявено създаването на Втората германска империя (райх).
  • Resmî olarak Almanya'nın birleşmesi ile siyasî ve idarî olarak birleşik bir ulus devletin ortaya çıkması 18 Ocak 1871'de Fransa'daki Versay Sarayı'nın Aynalar Galerisi'nde gerçekleşmiştir. Fransa-Prusya Savaşı sonrası Fransızların silah bırakmasının ardından, Alman devletlerinin prensleri Prusyalı I. Wilhelm'i Alman İmparatorluğu'nun imparatoru ilan etmek için bir araya geldi. Pratikte, Almanca konuşan halkların çoğunluğunun birleşik bir devletler topluluğu altında toplanması yaklaşık yüz yıllık bir tecrübe sonunda gerçekleşti. Yeni ulusun din, dil, sosyal ve kültürel açılardan çeşitli radikal değişimlere uğramasına sebep olan birleşme ise 1871 tarihinin, geniş çaplı birleşme sürecinin sadece küçük bir parçası olduğu izlenimi vermektedir.300'den fazla bağımsız devlet barındıran Kutsal Roma Cermen İmparatorluğu, imparator II. Franz, Üçüncü Koalisyon Savaşı sırasında 6 Ağustos 1806 tarihinde tahttan çekildiğinde fiilen sona erdi. İmparatorluğun çöküşüyle gelen yasal, idarî ve siyasî karmaşaya rağmen, eski imparatorluğun Almanca konuşulan bölgelerindeki halkın dil, kültür ve hukukî gelenekler konularındaki ortak noktaları Fransız Devrim Savaşları ve Napolyon Savaşları sırasında paylaşılan tecrübelerle daha da kuvvetlendi. Hanedan ve mutlakiyete meydan okuyan Avrupa liberalizmi, birleşme için zihinsel bir temel oluşturdu. Alman liberalizmi ise bunun dışında bir coğrafî bölgedeki halkın gelenek, eğitim ve dil konularında birleşmesinin önemini vurguladı. Ekonomik açıdan, Prusya'nın gümrük birliği olan Zollverein'in oluşturulması ve ardından Alman Konfederasyonu'ndaki diğer devletleri de içerecek şekilde genişlemesi devletler arasındaki ve içindeki rekabeti azalttı. Yeni ortaya çıkan ulaşım imkanları iş ve eğlence seyahatlerini kolaylaştırarak orta Avrupa'ya yayılmış Almanca konuşan halkların birbiri ile iletişim içinde bulunmasını kolaylaştırdı.1814-1815 Napolyon Savaşları sonrasındaki Viyana Kongresi'nin sonucu olarak ortaya çıkan etki alanı diplomatik modeli, Orta Avrupa'daki Avusturya egemenliğini güçlendirdi. Fakat, Viyana'daki arabulucular Prusya'nın Alman devletleri arasında ve içinde artan gücünü hesaba katmayarak, Prusya'nın Alman devletleri içinde Avusturya ile liderlik mücadelesine girebileceği öngöremediler. Bu Alman ikiliği birleşme sorununa iki farklı çözüm getirdi: Kleindeutsche Lösung, küçük Almanya çözümü (Avusturyasız Almanya) ya da Großdeutsche Lösung, büyük Almanya çözümü (Avusturyalı Almanya).Tarihçiler, Prusya başbakanı Otto von Bismarck'ın 1866'daki Kuzey Almanya Konfederasyonu'nu geri kalan bağımsız Alman devletlerini de içerecek bir şekilde genişletmek için baştan beri bir planının mı olduğu yoksa sadece Prusya Krallığı'nın gücünü genişletmek amacında mı olduğu konusunda anlaşamamıştır. 19. yüzyılda Bismarck'ın Realpolitik'inin gücüne ek olarak bazı dış etkenlerin de erken dönem modern devletlerinin siyasî, ekonomik, askerî ve diplomatik ilişkilerini yeniden düzenlemesine neden olduğu sonucuna varmışlardır. Danimarka ve Fransız milliyetçiliğine tepkiler, dikkatleri Alman birleşmesiyle ilgili ifadelere çekti. Üç bölgesel savaşta kazanılan askerî zaferler -özellikle Prusya'nın kazandıkları- politikacıların birleşmeyi desteklemek için kullanabilecekleri bir coşku ve gurur kaynağı oldu. Bu tecrübe Napolyon Savaşları'nda özellikle de 1813-1814'deki Altıncı Koalisyon Savaşı'ndaki iki yönlü başarıyı yansıtıyordu. Avusturyasız bir Almanya'nın kurulmasıyla, 1871 yılındaki siyasî ve idarî birleşme, en azından ikilik sorunu çözdü.
  • Объединение Германии (1871) — создание в 1871 году вокруг королевства Пруссия федеративного государства Германская империя из нескольких десятков независимых государств с немецким населением.Объединение Германии традиционно рассматривают как политический процесс на протяжении 1864—1870 годов, в ходе которого Пруссия провела ряд военных кампаний против Дании, Австрии и Франции. Датой объединения Германии считается 18 января 1871 года, когда после провозглашения Германской империи прусский король Вильгельм I принял присягу в качестве германского императора.
  • La unificació alemanya fou un procés polític endegat al segle XIX que va portar a l'agrupació en un únic estat dels diversos estats alemanys.
  • The formal unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at the Versailles Palace's Hall of Mirrors in France. Princes of the German states gathered there to proclaim Wilhelm of Prussia as Emperor Wilhelm of the German Empire after the French capitulation in the Franco-Prussian War. Unofficially, the de facto transition of most of the German-speaking populations into a federated organizations of states occurred far earlier, via alliances formal and informal between noblemen— but also fitfully as self-interests of parties hampered the process over nearly a century of aristocratic experimentation from the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire (1806) and the consequent rise of nationalism over the span of the Napoleonic Wars era.Unification exposed several glaring religious, linguistic, social, and cultural differences between and among the inhabitants of the new nation, suggesting that 1871 only represents one moment in a continuum of the larger unification processes. The Holy Roman Emperor was oft-called "Emperor of all the Germanies", news accounts referred to "The Germanies", and in the empire, its members of higher nobility were referred to as "Princes of Germany" or "Princes of the Germanies" - for the lands once East Francia had been ruled as pocket kingdoms, dynastic independent states ruled by its ruling classes since the times well before the rise of Charlemagne (800 AD). Given the mountainous terrains of much of the territory, it is obvious that isolated peoples would develop cultural, educational, linguistic and religious-based differences over such a lengthy time period. But Germany of the nineteenth century would enjoy transportation and communications improvements tying the peoples into a greater, tighter culture, as has the entire world under the influence of better communications and transportation infrastructures.The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, which had included more than 500 independent states, was effectively dissolved when Emperor Francis II abdicated (6 August 1806) during the War of the Third Coalition. Despite the legal, administrative, and political disruption associated with the end of the Empire, the people of the German-speaking areas of the old Empire had a common linguistic, cultural, and legal tradition further enhanced by their shared experience in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. The many independent states each also had its installed ruling class and their feudal associations, traditions, and local laws. There was a lot of inertia since the nobility desired to maintain their petty prerogatives. European liberalism offered an intellectual basis for unification by challenging dynastic and absolutist models of social and political organization; its German manifestation emphasized the importance of tradition, education, and linguistic unity of peoples in a geographic region. Economically, the creation of the Prussian Zollverein (customs union) in 1818, and its subsequent expansion to include other states of the German Confederation, reduced competition between and within states. Emerging modes of transportation facilitated business and recreational travel, leading to contact and sometimes conflict between and among German speakers from throughout Central Europe.The model of diplomatic spheres of influence resulting from the Congress of Vienna in 1814–15 after the Napoleonic Wars endorsed Austrian dominance in Central Europe. However, the negotiators at Vienna took no account of Prussia's growing strength within and among the German states and so failed to foresee that Prussia would rise up to challenge Austria for leadership within the German states. This German dualism presented two solutions to the problem of unification: Kleindeutsche Lösung, the small Germany solution (Germany without Austria), or Großdeutsche Lösung, greater Germany solution (Germany with Austria).Historians debate whether Otto von Bismarck — Minister President of Prussia — had a master plan to expand the North German Confederation of 1866 to include the remaining independent German states into a single entity or simply to expand the power of the Kingdom of Prussia. They conclude that factors in addition to the strength of Bismarck's Realpolitik led a collection of early modern polities to reorganize political, economic, military, and diplomatic relationships in the 19th century. Reaction to Danish and French nationalism provided foci for expressions of German unity. Military successes — especially those of Prussia — in three regional wars generated enthusiasm and pride that politicians could harness to promote unification. This experience echoed the memory of mutual accomplishment in the Napoleonic Wars, particularly in the War of Liberation of 1813–14. By establishing a Germany without Austria, the political and administrative unification in 1871 at least temporarily solved the problem of dualism.
  • 독일의 통일은 신성로마제국 이후 여러 군소 국가로 분열되어 있던 독일 지역을 하나의 국가로 통일하고자 한 움직임이며, 오스트리아 제국을 배제하고 프로이센 왕국 중심으로 민족 국가를 수립하자는 소독일주의와 오스트리아 제국까지 포함하여 통일하자는 대독일주의의 갈등을 중심으로 전개되었다. 결국 소독일주의가 승리하여 오스트리아를 제외한 통일이 실현된다. 프로이센은 1871년 1월 18일 프로이센-프랑스 전쟁에서 승전한 뒤 베르사유 궁전의 거울방에서 독일 제국을 선포하게 된다.
  • Zjednoczenie Niemiec (1866-1871) – kilkuletni proces jednoczenia państw niemieckich, zakończony proklamacją II Rzeszy.
  • Alemaniaren bateratzea estatu alemanieradunak egitura politiko eta administratibo bakarreko nazio-estatu alemaniar batean batzeko prozesua izan zen, XIX. mendean zehar garatu zena eta bukatutzat 1871ko urtarrilaren 18an jotzen dena, alemaniar estatuetako agintariak Versailles jauregiko Ispiluen Gelan bildurik Prusiako Gilen enperadore izendatu zutenean, Frantzia-Prusia Gerraren ondoren.Germaniako Erromatar Inperio Santua 1806an desegin zen Franz II.ak tronua utzi zuenean Napoleondar Gerretan. Lege, administrazio eta politika arloetan Inperioa desegiteak sortu zituen gorabeherak albo batean utzita, aurreko Inperioko eskualde alemanieradunek amankomunean zeukaten hizkuntza, kultura eta lege tradizio luzea, Frantziaren kontrako gerretan areagotua. Liberalismoak oinarri intelektualak eman zituen, antolamendu politiko eta sozial zaharrak zalantzan jarri baitzituen. Ekonomiari dagokionez, 1818an Zollverein izeneko salerosteko batasunari esker, estatuen arteko lehia apaldu zen, eta garraiatzeko sistema berriekin batera, negozioak eta bidaiak ugaldu ziren.Vienako Batzarrean (1814-1815) sortutako eredu politikoak Austriaren nagusitasuna Erdialdeko Europan azpimarratu zuen, baina alemaniar estatuen artean Prusiak gero eta botere handiagoa zeukala ez zen kontuan hartu, eta ezin zen aurreikusi Prusiaren eta Austriaren arteko lehia nagusitasunarengatik. Gatazka horrek Alemaniako dualismoa, bi konponbide alegia, ekarri zituen batasunaren auzian: Alemania Txikiarena (Kleindeutsche Lösung), hau da Alemania Austriarik gabe, eta Alemania Handiarena (Großdeutsche Lösung), Alemania Austria hartuta.Bateratze prozesua Prusiak, eta zehatzago esanda Prusiako ministroburua zen Otto von Bismarckek, gidatu zuen. Hala ere, historialariak ez datoz bat esaterakoan zein zen Bismarcken asmoa: 1867ko Iparraldeko Alemaniako Konfederazioa zabaltzea eta gainerako alemaniar estatu independienteak bilduta inperio bat sortzea, edo, besterik gabe, Prusiako boterea handitzea. Azkenean, Austriarik gabeko Alemania sortzean, 1871ko bateratzeak dualismoaren auzia konpondu zuen, behin-behinekoz behintzat.
  • Met de Duitse eenwording wordt in de eerste plaats gedoeld op het ontstaan in 1871 van het Duitse Keizerrijk uit de voordien vele onafhankelijke en semi-onafhankelijke staten en staatjes van de Duitse Bond.Het streven naar de Duitse eenwording dateerde al van eerder. Belangrijk momenten die de aanzet vormden waren de Reden an die deutsche Nation uit 1807/'08 van Fichte tijdens de napoleontische bezetting en het Eerste Wartburgfest in 1817.In 1848 was er even paniek: in Pruisen begon de Maartrevolutie. Deze zette echter niet door en werd snel neergeslagen door de autoriteiten. Aan het begin van de mislukte revolutie vond de oprichting van het Frankfurter Parlement plaats. Dit Parlement presenteerde een verenigd Duitsland op een dienblad aan de Pruisische koning. Deze weigerde echter: eenwording zou moeten geschieden op de voorwaarden van Pruisen.De eenwording kwam er, zij het een paar decennia later. Eerst moest een aantal obstakels overwonnen worden. De belangrijkste daarvan, was de reactie van de andere landen op een verenigd Duitsland. Het Congres van Wenen had namelijk een verenigd Duitsland willen voorkomen. Een verenigd Duitsland zou namelijk te sterk zijn en het machtsevenwicht in gevaar brengen. Een politiek moest dus worden ontwikkeld waarmee Pruisen iedereen te vriend zou houden, hetgeen overigens niet echt lukte. Bedenker en uitvoerder van deze Realpolitik was de Pruisische minister-president Otto von Bismarck. Volgens hem "moest eenheid niet door compromissen bereikt worden, dat was een fout van 1848 geweest. Eenheid moest bereikt worden door bloed en ijzer (Blut und Eisen)."Onder leiding van Bismarcks Pruisen werden de Bondsstaten verenigd. Het eerste obstakel was Sleeswijk-Holstein. De koning van Denemarken wilde dit gebied omwille van zijn economische kracht inlijven bij Denemarken. Bismarck besloot daarom samen met Oostenrijk Denemarken aan te vallen. Schleswig-Holstein werd ingelijfd bij Pruisen (met een Oostenrijks belang). Oostenrijk lag voor een deel in de Duitse Bond en Pruisen wilde hen eruit en verklaarde hen de oorlog, hiervoor kreeg hij assistentie van het net verenigde Italië. Aangezien Oostenrijk aan twee kanten werd aangevallen en zo het leger verzwakt werd, verloor het. Een handigheid van Bismarck, die hem echter onbegrip bij de keizer en Generale Staf opleverde, was het sluiten van vrede met Oostenrijk zonder gebiedsafstand te verlangen. Dit land zou hierdoor geen wrok tegen Pruisen koesteren. Wel werden landen die de kant van Oostenrijk hadden gekozen, Nassau, Hannover, Kurhessen en Hertogdom Holstein bij Pruisen ingelijfd. De Duitse Bond werd vervangen door een Noordduitse Bond waarin Pruisen absoluut dominant was en een Zuid-Duitse Bond. Bismarck sloot de bijstandsverdragen met de Zuid-Duitse Bond, wat inhield dat die de Noord-Duitse bond zou helpen in geval van een oorlog.Een vijand was snel gevonden, namelijk Frankrijk. Een reden moest hij zelf uitvinden en deed hij met behulp van de Emscher-telegram. Frankrijk was ontsteld en verklaarde Pruisen de oorlog. De verdragen treden in werking, Frankrijk werd makkelijk verslagen en op 18 januari 1871 ontstond in de spiegelzaal in Versailles het Tweede Keizerrijk Duitsland.In de periode tussen de Tweede Wereldoorlog en 1990 kende Duitsland een nieuwe periode van verdeeldheid, waaraan pas een einde kwam toen de voormalige DDR herenigd werd met de Bondsrepubliek tot het huidige Duitsland.
  • Con l'espressione Unificazione della Germania (in lingua tedesca: Deutsche Einigung) ci si riferisce al processo di formazione dello stato tedesco avvenuta nel corso del XIX secolo in due tappe: dapprima con la creazione della Confederazione Tedesca del Nord (1866) e successivamente con la costituzione dell'Impero tedesco (1871).
  • Unter der deutschen Einigung versteht man die Schaffung eines deutschen Nationalstaates durch Otto von Bismarck 1866 (Norddeutscher Bund) und 1871 (Deutsches Kaiserreich).Die Schaffung eines geeinten Deutschlands war seit den Befreiungskriegen 1813 das Ziel der Liberalen und Studenten. Doch scheiterte das Bürgertum damit 1848 und 1849 (Märzrevolution, Frankfurter Nationalversammlung). Dieses urliberale Ziel verwirklichten dann paradoxerweise der Adel und der erzkonservative preußische Ministerpräsident Otto von Bismarck, also genau die politischen Gegner der Liberalen.Die Einigung vollzog sich nach Abschluss der Einigungskriege, im Wesentlichen jedoch in zwei Schritten: Die Gründung des Norddeutschen Bundes nach dem Deutschen Krieg Preußens gegen das Kaisertum Österreich 1866, der im darauffolgenden Jahr durch eine Verfassung zum Bundesstaat wurde, und die Gründung des Deutschen Reiches nach dem Krieg gegen Frankreich 1870/71, was einer Gebietsvergrößerung und Erweiterung des Bundes gleichkam.
  • A unificação da Alemanha, política e administrativamente, em um Estado-nação, realizou-se, oficialmente, no dia 18 de Janeiro de 1871, na Galeria dos Espelhos do Palácio de Versalhes, na França. Os príncipes dos estados alemães reuniram-se para proclamar Guilherme da Prússia como Imperador Guilherme do Império Alemão depois da capitulação francesa na Guerra franco-prussiana. Informalmente, a transição de facto da maioria das populações falantes de alemão para uma organização federada de estados, teve lugar mais cedo, através de alianças formais e informais, entre nobres — e, também, de forma irregular, devido às dificuldades levantadas pelos interesses de grupos aristocráticos, desde a dissolução do Sacro Império Romano-Germânico (1806), e da consequente ascensão do nacionalismo ao longo do período das Guerras Napoleónicas.A unificação expôs várias diferenças flagrantes ao nível religioso, linguístico, social e cultural entre os habitantes da nova nação, sugerindo que o ano de 1871 apenas representou um momento num mais abrangente processo de unificação. O imperador sacro-romano era chamado de de "Imperador de todas as Alemanhas"; na imprensa era referido como "das Alemanhas"; e, no Império, a sua alta nobreza era citada como "Príncipes da Alemanha" ou "Príncipes das Alemanhas"— em referência aos territórios da Frância oriental que eram governados como pequenos reinos, estados dinásticos independentes administrados pelas suas classes dominantes desde o tempo de Carlos Magno (800 a.C.). Devido ao relevo montanhoso de grande parte do território, as populações mais isoladas desenvolveram as suas próprias características culturais, educacionais, linguísticas e religiosas ao longo de um grande período de tempo. Mas a Alemanha do século XIX assistiria a um desenvolvimento ao nível dos transportes e comunicações o que ligou as populações culturalmente.O Sacro Império Romano da Nação Alemã, que tinha agregado mais de 500 estados independentes, foi dissolvido quando o Imperador Francisco IV abdicou (6 de Agosto de 1806) durante a Guerra da Terceira Coligação. Apesar da ruptura legal, administrativa e política associada com o fim do Império, os povos das zonas de língua alemã do antigo Império partilhavam uma tradição linguística, cultural e legal comuns, aumentada pela sua experiência compartilhada nas Guerras revolucionárias francesas. Cada estado independente tinha a sua própria classe governante e as suas associações feudais, tradições e leis locais. Como a nobreza queria manter as suas prerrogativas, o desenvolvimentos destes estados era quase nulo. O liberalismo europeu oferecia uma base intelectual para a unificação fazendo frente aos modelos dinásticos e absolutistas das organizações sociais e políticas; a sua natureza germânica sublinhava a importância da tradição, educação e unidade linguística das pessoas numa região geográfica. Economicamente, a criação do Zollverein prussiano em 1818, e a sua subsequente expansão para incluir outros estados da Confederação Germânica, reduziram a concorrência entre, e dentro dos, estados. O aparecimento de novos modos de transporte, facilitaram as viagens de negócios e em lazer, ocasionando contactos, alguns deles conflituosos, entre, e dentro, os povos de língua alemã por toda a Europa Central.Os modelos das esferas de influência diplomáticas, resultantes do Congresso de Viena, em 1814–15, depois das Guerras Napoleónicas, sancionaram o domínio austríaco na Europa Central. Contudo, os negociadores de Viena não levaram em consideração a crescente força da Prússia no meio dos estados germânicos e, deste modo, falharam ao não visionar que a Prússia iria fazer frente à Áustria para conquistar a liderança entre os estados germânicos. Este dualismo alemão colocava duas soluções para o problema da unificação: Kleindeutsche Lösung, a pequena solução alemã (a Alemanha sem a Áustria), ou Großdeutsche Lösung, a grande solução alemã (a Alemanha com a Áustria).Os historiadores discutem sobre se Otto von Bismarck — Ministro - presidente da Prússia — tinha um plano principal para expandir a Confederação da Alemanha do Norte de 1866, passando a incluir os restantes estados independentes numa única entidade, ou simplesmente a expandir o poder do Reino da Prússia. Concluem que os factores adicionais à força da Realpolitik de Bismarck, levaram a que um conjunto de modernos regimes reorganizassem as relações políticas, económicas, militares e diplomáticas no século XIX. As reacções ao nacionalismo dinamarquês e francês deram origem a focos de manifestações de unidade alemã. Sucessos militares - em particular os da Prússia - em três guerras regionais, originaram uma onda de entusiasmo e orgulho que os políticos aproveitaram para promover a unificação. Esta experiência fez recordar as realizações do povo francês nas Guerras Napoleónicas, em particular na Guerra da Libertação de 1813–14. Ao estabelecer uam Alemanha sem a Áustria, a unificação política e administrativa em 1871, solucionou, temporariamente, o problema do dualismo.
  • Németország egyesítése 1871. január 18-án következett be, amikor Otto von Bismarck porosz miniszterelnök vezetésével a számos független német állam egy nemzetállammá egyesült, megalkotva a Német Birodalmat, amelytől fogva mindegyik államot magába foglalja a Németország elnevezés.Számos vita tárgya, hogy vajon a „vaskancellárnak” valóban Németország egyesítése volt a célja, vagy csupán Poroszország területének kiterjesztése.
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  • Moltke, Schlieffen, and Prussian war planning
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  • The Birth of a Great Power System
  • The Environmental Movement in Germany
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  • The diary of a Napoleonic foot soldier
  • The role of historical memory in nation-building
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  • Warfare and Society in Europe, 1792–1914
  • Blood and iron: from Bismarck to Hitler the von Moltke family's impact on German history
  • Crises of Political Development in Europe and the United States
  • The Great Powers and the European States System 1814–1914
  • Schooling and society: the politics of education in Prussia and Bavaria, 1750–1900
  • The long nineteenth century: a history of Germany, 1780–1918
  • Nineteenth century German Protestantism: the church as social model
  • German History before Hitler: The Debate about the German Sonderweg."
  • Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna
  • The Franco-Prussian War: the German invasion of France, 1870–1871
  • For King and Kaiser!: the making of the Prussian Army officer, 1860–1914
  • Rethinking German history: nineteenth-century Germany and the origins of the Third Reich
  • The other Prussia: royal Prussia, Poland and liberty, 1569–1772
  • Politics and the sciences of culture in Germany, 1840–1920
  • Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600–1947
  • The course of German nationalism: from Frederick the Great to Bismarck, 1763–1867
  • Death in Hamburg: Society and Politics in the Cholera Years, 1830–1910
  • Marpingen: apparitions of the Virgin Mary in Bismarckian Germany
  • German home towns: community, state, and general estate, 1648–1871
  • Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire 1815–1918
  • The peculiarities of German history: bourgeois society and politics in nineteenth-century Germany
  • Railroads and rifles: soldiers, technology, and the unification of Germany
  • The Swabian Kreis: Institutional Growth in the Holy Roman Empire 1648–1715
  • Absolute Destruction: Military culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany
  • Germany's rude awakening: censorship in the land of the Brothers Grimm
  • The German idea of militarism: radical and socialist critics, 1866–1914
  • Asymmetrical Historical Comparison: The Case of the German Sonderweg
  • Modern Germany: Society, Economy and Politics in the Twentieth Century.
  • The History of Europe from 1862–1914: From the Accession of Bismarck to the Outbreak of the Great War
  • Germany's Transient Pasts: Preservation and the National Memory in the Twentieth Century
  • The making of the Jewish middle class: women, family, and identity in Imperial Germany
  • The politics of Harmony: Civil Service, Liberalism, and Social Reform in Baden, 1800–1850
prop-fr:titreChapitre
  • Fédéralisme et unité allemande
prop-fr:titreVolume
  • Machtstaat vor der Demokratie
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  • http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/germanunification.html
  • http://books.google.de/books?id=Rc4mtLSzu9oC&printsec=frontcover&hl=fr&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q=forgetting&f=false
  • http://books.google.de/books?id=tcEvFphSSj4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Marion+Kaplan,+The+making+of+the+Jewish+middle+class:+women,+family,+and+identity+in+Imperial+Germany&hl=fr&sa=X&ei=cUHFUvu1PMHTswasiYCYCA&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
  • http://books.google.de/books?id=l6UqAQAAMAAJ&q=unit%C3%A9+allemande&dq=unit%C3%A9+allemande&hl=de&sa=X&ei=AB-pT7imBeiM4gTbyNm-CQ&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA
  • http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/kaiserreich/innenpolitik/reichsgruendung/index.html
  • http://books.google.de/books/about/L_Unit%C3%A9_allemande_1800_1871.html?id=Xy9LAAAAMAAJ&redir_esc=y
  • http://books.google.de/books?id=FBCd5fohb5UC&pg=PA83&dq=unification+allemande+1871+1990&hl=de&sa=X&ei=FyCpT-WFK9DS4QSWkLmHBA&ved=0CFgQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=unification%20allemande%201871%201990&f=false
  • http://books.google.de/books?id=JCxyn2_FmegC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Mack+Walker,+German+home+towns:+community,+state,+and+general+estate,+1648%E2%80%931871&hl=fr&sa=X&ei=H0fFUtHYBofBswaTvIGQDg&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Reichskreise&f=false
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dcterms:subject
rdfs:comment
  • L'unification de l'Allemagne, sous la forme d'un État-nation, eut officiellement lieu le 18 janvier 1871 dans la galerie des Glaces du château de Versailles, en France. Les princes allemands s'y rassemblèrent après leur victoire lors de la Guerre franco-prussienne pour proclamer Guillaume Ier de Prusse empereur du nouvel Empire allemand.
  • ドイツ統一(ドイツとういつ)は、ドイツ人がホーエンツォレルン朝プロイセン王国の国王ヴィルヘルム1世をドイツ帝国の皇帝として戴くことを決め、ドイツ人の統一国家を1871年に成立させたことを指す。1990年に西ドイツと東ドイツの統一がなされて以来、「ドイツ統一」は特に日本国内においてはこれを意味して使用する場合が多くなっているが、ドイツなどでは「ドイツ統一」(独: Deutsche Reichsgründung, 英: Unification of Germany)は1871年のドイツ統一のみを指す。歴史用語・政治用語としても1990年のものは「ドイツ再統一」(独: Deutsche Wiedervereinigung, 英: German reunification)と呼ばれ、明確に区別されている。
  • Penyatuan Jerman terjadi pada tanggal 18 Januari 1871, ketika Perdana Menteri Kerajaan Prusia, Otto von Bismarck berhasil menyatukan beberapa negara Jerman menjadi satu negara, dan mendirikan Kekaisaran Jerman. Seluruh Jerman, kecuali Austria, berhasil disatukan. Otto von Bismarck menjadi kanselir Jerman sesudah penyatuan ini.
  • La unificació alemanya fou un procés polític endegat al segle XIX que va portar a l'agrupació en un únic estat dels diversos estats alemanys.
  • 독일의 통일은 신성로마제국 이후 여러 군소 국가로 분열되어 있던 독일 지역을 하나의 국가로 통일하고자 한 움직임이며, 오스트리아 제국을 배제하고 프로이센 왕국 중심으로 민족 국가를 수립하자는 소독일주의와 오스트리아 제국까지 포함하여 통일하자는 대독일주의의 갈등을 중심으로 전개되었다. 결국 소독일주의가 승리하여 오스트리아를 제외한 통일이 실현된다. 프로이센은 1871년 1월 18일 프로이센-프랑스 전쟁에서 승전한 뒤 베르사유 궁전의 거울방에서 독일 제국을 선포하게 된다.
  • Zjednoczenie Niemiec (1866-1871) – kilkuletni proces jednoczenia państw niemieckich, zakończony proklamacją II Rzeszy.
  • Con l'espressione Unificazione della Germania (in lingua tedesca: Deutsche Einigung) ci si riferisce al processo di formazione dello stato tedesco avvenuta nel corso del XIX secolo in due tappe: dapprima con la creazione della Confederazione Tedesca del Nord (1866) e successivamente con la costituzione dell'Impero tedesco (1871).
  • Németország egyesítése 1871. január 18-án következett be, amikor Otto von Bismarck porosz miniszterelnök vezetésével a számos független német állam egy nemzetállammá egyesült, megalkotva a Német Birodalmat, amelytől fogva mindegyik államot magába foglalja a Németország elnevezés.Számos vita tárgya, hogy vajon a „vaskancellárnak” valóban Németország egyesítése volt a célja, vagy csupán Poroszország területének kiterjesztése.
  • Met de Duitse eenwording wordt in de eerste plaats gedoeld op het ontstaan in 1871 van het Duitse Keizerrijk uit de voordien vele onafhankelijke en semi-onafhankelijke staten en staatjes van de Duitse Bond.Het streven naar de Duitse eenwording dateerde al van eerder.
  • Alemaniaren bateratzea estatu alemanieradunak egitura politiko eta administratibo bakarreko nazio-estatu alemaniar batean batzeko prozesua izan zen, XIX. mendean zehar garatu zena eta bukatutzat 1871ko urtarrilaren 18an jotzen dena, alemaniar estatuetako agintariak Versailles jauregiko Ispiluen Gelan bildurik Prusiako Gilen enperadore izendatu zutenean, Frantzia-Prusia Gerraren ondoren.Germaniako Erromatar Inperio Santua 1806an desegin zen Franz II.ak tronua utzi zuenean Napoleondar Gerretan.
  • Обединението на Германия от 1871 г. се състои в създаването на една общогерманска национална държава под управлението на Ото фон Бисмарк през 1866 (Северногермански съюз) и през 1871 (Германска империя).Обединението на Германия е целта на либерали и студенти още от Освободителните войни през 1813 г. Въпреки това гражданското съсловие се проваля в първите си опити (Мартенска революция, Франкфуртско национално събрание).Обединението трябвало да премине през 3 военни конфликта.
  • La Unificación de Alemania fue un proceso histórico que tuvo lugar en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y que culminó con la creación del Imperio alemán el 18 de enero de 1871.Antes de la formación de un estado nacional unificado, el territorio de Alemania se encontraba dividido en un mosaico político formado por 39 estados. Entre ellos destacaban, por su importancia económica y política, Austria y Prusia.
  • The formal unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at the Versailles Palace's Hall of Mirrors in France. Princes of the German states gathered there to proclaim Wilhelm of Prussia as Emperor Wilhelm of the German Empire after the French capitulation in the Franco-Prussian War.
  • Resmî olarak Almanya'nın birleşmesi ile siyasî ve idarî olarak birleşik bir ulus devletin ortaya çıkması 18 Ocak 1871'de Fransa'daki Versay Sarayı'nın Aynalar Galerisi'nde gerçekleşmiştir. Fransa-Prusya Savaşı sonrası Fransızların silah bırakmasının ardından, Alman devletlerinin prensleri Prusyalı I. Wilhelm'i Alman İmparatorluğu'nun imparatoru ilan etmek için bir araya geldi.
  • Unter der deutschen Einigung versteht man die Schaffung eines deutschen Nationalstaates durch Otto von Bismarck 1866 (Norddeutscher Bund) und 1871 (Deutsches Kaiserreich).Die Schaffung eines geeinten Deutschlands war seit den Befreiungskriegen 1813 das Ziel der Liberalen und Studenten. Doch scheiterte das Bürgertum damit 1848 und 1849 (Märzrevolution, Frankfurter Nationalversammlung).
  • A unificação da Alemanha, política e administrativamente, em um Estado-nação, realizou-se, oficialmente, no dia 18 de Janeiro de 1871, na Galeria dos Espelhos do Palácio de Versalhes, na França. Os príncipes dos estados alemães reuniram-se para proclamar Guilherme da Prússia como Imperador Guilherme do Império Alemão depois da capitulação francesa na Guerra franco-prussiana.
  • Sjednocení Německa, kterým došlo k politickému a administrativnímu sjednocení německých států do národního státu, bylo oficiálně oznámeno 18. ledna 1871 v zrcadlové síni paláce Versailles ve Francii, kde německá knížata slavnostně prohlásila Viléma I. Pruského německým císařem po kapitulaci Francie v prusko-francouzské válce.
  • Объединение Германии (1871) — создание в 1871 году вокруг королевства Пруссия федеративного государства Германская империя из нескольких десятков независимых государств с немецким населением.Объединение Германии традиционно рассматривают как политический процесс на протяжении 1864—1870 годов, в ходе которого Пруссия провела ряд военных кампаний против Дании, Австрии и Франции.
rdfs:label
  • Unité allemande
  • Alemaniaren bateratzea
  • Almanya'nın birleşmesi
  • Deutsche Einigung
  • Duitse eenwording
  • Németország egyesítése
  • Penyatuan Jerman
  • Sjednocení Německa
  • Unificació alemanya
  • Unificación alemana
  • Unification of Germany
  • Unificazione della Germania
  • Unificação Alemã
  • Zjednoczenie Niemiec (1866-1871)
  • Обединение на Германия (1871)
  • Объединение Германии (1871)
  • ドイツ統一
  • 독일의 통일
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