La société tibétaine traditionnelle, telle qu'elle existait avant les réformes mises en place par le gouvernement communiste chinois dans les années 1950, est souvent comparée à la société féodale de l'Europe médiévale.

PropertyValue
dbpedia-owl:abstract
  • La société tibétaine traditionnelle, telle qu'elle existait avant les réformes mises en place par le gouvernement communiste chinois dans les années 1950, est souvent comparée à la société féodale de l'Europe médiévale. Dans le Tibet central sous administration de Lhassa, le pouvoir était concentré entre les mains d'une aristocratie héréditaire qui dominait une société fortement inégalitaire, et la religion (le bouddhisme tibétain ou lamaïsme) y jouait un rôle fondamental dans le maintien de l'ordre spirituel, mais également de l'ordre temporel, sous l'autorité du dalaï-lama. Même dans les régions périphériques que le pouvoir temporel de Lhassa n'atteignait que difficilement ou pas du tout, le dalaï-lama était largement considéré comme le plus haut représentant du pouvoir spirituel. De cette organisation traditionnelle ne demeure aujourd'hui au sein de la République populaire de Chine que l'autorité spirituelle des monastères et du dalaï-lama, autorité que le gouvernement chinois n'accepte pas et cherche par tous les moyens à faire disparaître.
  • There were three main social groups in Tibet prior to 1959, namely ordinary laypeople (mi ser in Tibetan), lay nobility (sger pa), and monks. The ordinary layperson could be further classified as a peasant farmer (shing-pa) or nomadic pastoralist (trokpa).[citation needed]The Tsang (17th century) and Dalai Lama (Ganden Podrang) law codes distinguished three social divisions: high, medium and low, each in turn was divided into three classes, to give nine classes in all. Social status was a formal classification, mostly hereditary and had legal consequences: for example the compensation to be paid for the killing of a member of these classes varied from 5 (for the lowest) to 200 'sung' for the second highest, the members of the noble families.Nobles, government officials and monks of pure conduct were in the high division, only - probably - the Dalai Lama was in the very highest class. The middle division contained a large portion of the population and ranged from minor government officials, to taxpayer and landholding peasants, to landless peasants. Movement between classes was possible in the middle division. The lower division contained ragyabpa ('untouchables') of different types: e.g. blacksmiths and butchers. The very lowest class contained executioners, and (in the Tsang code) bachelors and hermaphrodites.Anthropologists have presented different taxonomies for the middle social division, in part because they studied specific regions of Tibet and the terms were not universal. Both Melvyn Goldstein and Geoff Childs however classified the population into three main types: taxpayer families (tre-ba or khral-pa) householders (du-jong or dud-chung-ba) landless peasants (mi-bo)In the middle group, the taxpaying families could be quite wealthy. Depending upon the district, each category had different responsibilities in terms of tax and labor. Membership to each of these classes was primarily hereditary; the linkage between subjects and their estate and overlord was similarly transmitted through parallel descent. The taxpayer class, although numerically smallest among the three subclasses, occupied a superior position in terms of political and economic status.
dbpedia-owl:thumbnail
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageExternalLink
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageID
  • 2931811 (xsd:integer)
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageLength
  • 110980 (xsd:integer)
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageOutDegree
  • 205 (xsd:integer)
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageRevisionID
  • 109416841 (xsd:integer)
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageWikiLink
prop-fr:année
  • 1968 (xsd:integer)
  • 1971 (xsd:integer)
  • 1977 (xsd:integer)
  • 1985 (xsd:integer)
  • 1986 (xsd:integer)
  • 1987 (xsd:integer)
  • 1990 (xsd:integer)
  • 1992 (xsd:integer)
  • 1995 (xsd:integer)
  • 1996 (xsd:integer)
  • 1997 (xsd:integer)
  • 1998 (xsd:integer)
  • 1999 (xsd:integer)
  • 2000 (xsd:integer)
  • 2001 (xsd:integer)
  • 2003 (xsd:integer)
  • 2005 (xsd:integer)
  • 2006 (xsd:integer)
  • 2007 (xsd:integer)
prop-fr:auteur
  • Alex McKay
  • David Phillips
  • Stéphane Gros
  • Marc Moniez, Christian Deweirdt, Monique Masse
  • Ministère des Affaires étrangères de la République populaire de Chine
  • A. Tom Grunfeld
  • Badeng Nima
  • Barry Sautman & June Teufel Dreyer
  • Beatrice D. Miller
  • Catriona Bass
  • China Internet Information Center
  • China Tibetology No 8
  • Françoise Pommaret
  • Geoff Childs
  • Gerard A. Postiglione
  • Heidi Fjeld, Nordic Institute of Asian Studies
  • Hui Jin, Cai Rong Jizhi
  • Human Rights Watch, June 2007, Volume 19, No. 8
  • Jérôme Édou, René Vernadet
  • Laurent Deshayes
  • Liu Hongji, Cering Hongzom
  • Liu Zhong
  • Lobsang Sangay
  • Melanie Shaffer
  • Melvyn C. Goldstein
  • Melvyn C. Goldstein & Paljor Tsarong
  • Melvyn C. Goldstein and Cynthia M. Beall
  • People's Daily Online
  • Qangngoiba Doje Ngoizhub
  • Rebecca R. French
  • Rebecca Redwood French
  • Rinjing Dorje
  • Robert B. Ekvall
  • Sous la direction de Edward L. Shaughnessy
  • The Office of Tibet
  • Thomas Laird, Bstan-ʼdzin-rgya-mtsho
  • William Monroe Coleman
  • Wolfgang Bertsch
  • Zhenmin Wang
  • Melvyn C. Goldstein, Ben Jiao, Cynthia M. Beall, and Phuntsog Tsering
  • Melvyn C. Goldstein, William Siebenschuh & Tashi Tsering
prop-fr:consultéLe
  • 2009-05-10 (xsd:date)
prop-fr:id
  • ANO07
  • ANOXXA
  • ANOXXB
  • ANOXXC
  • BAS98
  • BER96
  • CHI03
  • CIIXXA
  • CIIXXB
  • CIIXXC
  • CIIXXD
  • CIIXXE
  • CIIXXF
  • CIIXXG
  • COLXX
  • DES97
  • DOR85
  • EDO07
  • EKV77
  • FJE01
  • FRE95
  • FREXX
  • GOL03
  • GOL68
  • GOL71A
  • GOL71B
  • GOL71C
  • GOL85
  • GOL86
  • GOL90
  • GOL92
  • GOL99
  • GRO96
  • GRO97
  • GRU96
  • HUI95
  • LAI06
  • LBL03
  • LIU03
  • LIU98
  • MIL87
  • MKAV1
  • MKAV2
  • MKAV3
  • MON99
  • NGOXX
  • NIM01
  • OTI96
  • PEOXX
  • PHI01
  • POM03
  • POS06
  • POS99
  • RPC00A
  • RPC00B
  • RW944
  • SAN99
  • SAU06
  • SHA07
  • SHAXX
  • ZHE00
prop-fr:isbn
  • 0 (xsd:integer)
  • 1 (xsd:integer)
  • 2 (xsd:integer)
  • 7 (xsd:integer)
  • 90 (xsd:integer)
  • 978 (xsd:integer)
  • 765614766 (xsd:integer)
  • 815322232 (xsd:integer)
  • 878083529 (xsd:integer)
  • 1856496740 (xsd:integer)
  • 7801130251 (xsd:double)
  • 9788791114175 (xsd:double)
prop-fr:jour
  • 15 (xsd:integer)
prop-fr:mois
  • février
prop-fr:numéro
  • 944 (xsd:integer)
prop-fr:périodique
  • Revolutionary Worker
prop-fr:titre
  • Histoire du Tibet
  • La Chine
  • Le Tibet
  • The Struggle for Modern Tibet - The Autobiography of Tashi Tsering
  • China in Tibet: Forty Years of Liberation or Occupation?
  • The History of Tibet - The Early Period: to c. AD-850
  • Contemporary Tibet - Politics, Development, and Society in a Disputed Region
  • La vie des citadins tibétains - Rapport d'enquête sur les habitants de Lhugu à Lhasa
  • China's National Minority Education - Culture, Schooling, and Development
  • Stratification, Polyandry, and Family Structure in Central Tibet
  • The History of Tibet - The Modern Period: 1895-1959
  • Development and Change in Rural Tibet, Problems and Adaptations
  • An Anthropological Study Of The Tibetan Political System
  • Education in Tibet - Policy and Practice Since 1950
  • A Survey of Tibetan Paper Currency
  • Cultural Relations on the Kansu-Tibetan Border
  • Education in Old Tibet Under Feudal Serfdom
  • Food in Tibetan Life
  • Histoire de la société au Tibet, Chine
  • Commoners and Nobles - Hereditary Divisions in Tibet
  • L'Histoire du Tibet
  • Livre blanc: La modernisation du Tibet
  • Modern Education in New Tibet
  • On the K'ralpa Manors of Tibet
  • Problems related to bilingual education in Tibet
  • Tibetan Buddhist Monasticism: Social, Psychological & Cultural Implications
  • Serf System
  • Système de servage féodal du Tibet
  • Taxation and the Structure of a Tibetan Village
  • Terres de confins, terres de colonisation
  • The Developing Rule of Law in China
  • The Legal System on the Roof of the World
  • The Making of Modern Tibet
  • The Tibetan ethnic minority
  • Tibet - les chevaux du vent
  • Tibet Facts & Figures 2002
  • Tibet Facts & Figures 2005
  • Tibet Facts & Figures 2006
  • Tibet Facts & Figures 2007
  • Tibet Facts & Figures 2008
  • Tibetan education as I see it
  • When the Dalai Lamas Ruled: Hell on Earth
  • Writing Tibetan History: The Discourses of Feudalism and Serfdom in Chinese and Western Historiography
  • The Golden Yoke - The Legal Cosmology of Buddhist Tibet
  • Traditional society and democratic framework for future Tibet
  • Peoples on the Move - Introducing the Nomads of the World
  • Polyandry and population growth in a historical Tibetan society
  • Lhasa in the Seventeenth Century - The Capital of the Dalai Lamas
  • The Education System of Three Major Monasteries in Lhasa
  • On Khral-Ula Corvee System during the period of the old Local Government in Tibet
  • The History of Tibet - The Medieval Period: c.850-1895
  • Tibetan Legal Literature: The Law Codes of the dGa' ldan pho brang
  • Reexamining Choice, Dependency and Command In The Tibetan Social System: 'Tax Appendages' and other landless serfs
  • A Response to Goldstein's "Reexamining Choice, Dependency and Command In The Tibetan Social System"
  • Serfdom and Mobility: An Examination of the Institution of "Human Lease" in Traditional Tibetan Society
  • Nomads of Western Tibet - The survival of a way of life
  • The Story of Tibet - Conversations with the Dalai Lama
  • A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951 - The Demise of the Lamaist State
  • Education and social change in China - Inequality in a Market Economy
  • “No One Has the Liberty to Refuse”
  • Centralisation et intégration du système égalitaire Drung sous l’influence des pouvoirs voisins
prop-fr:url
prop-fr:urlTexte
prop-fr:wikiPageUsesTemplate
prop-fr:éditeur
  • dbpedia-fr:Cornell_University_Press
  • Brill
  • Fayard
  • M.E. Sharpe
  • Routledge
  • University of California Press
  • University of Chicago Press
  • China Intercontinental Press
  • University of Washington
  • L'Asiathèque
  • Taschen GmbH
  • Zed Books
  • Tibetan Literature: Studies in Genre, Section 1 of 10, pages 438-457
  • Asia Survey, Vol. 43, No. 5, pp. 758-779
  • Banyan Press
  • Bulletin of Tibetology, Volume 32, Number 3
  • Central Asiatic Journal 15:1-27
  • China Tibetology No 8
  • Department of Anthropology, Washington University
  • Harvard Asia Quarterly, Volume III, No. 3
  • Les Guides Peuples du Monde, Editions de l'Adret
  • NIAS Press
  • Open City Books
  • Péninsule 33
  • Péninsule 35
  • Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. 27: 64-74
  • The Journal of Asian Studies. 30: 521-534
  • The Tibet Journal 10: 14-31
  • The Tibet Journal XI No.4:79-113
  • The Tibet Journal XII No.2:65-67
  • William Carey Library
  • Office d'Information du Conseil des affaires de l'État de la République populaire de Chine
  • Master’s Thesis, East-West Centre, University of Hawaii
  • Harvard Asia Quarterly, Volume IV, No. 4. Autumn 2000
dcterms:subject
rdfs:comment
  • La société tibétaine traditionnelle, telle qu'elle existait avant les réformes mises en place par le gouvernement communiste chinois dans les années 1950, est souvent comparée à la société féodale de l'Europe médiévale.
  • There were three main social groups in Tibet prior to 1959, namely ordinary laypeople (mi ser in Tibetan), lay nobility (sger pa), and monks. The ordinary layperson could be further classified as a peasant farmer (shing-pa) or nomadic pastoralist (trokpa).[citation needed]The Tsang (17th century) and Dalai Lama (Ganden Podrang) law codes distinguished three social divisions: high, medium and low, each in turn was divided into three classes, to give nine classes in all.
rdfs:label
  • Société tibétaine
  • Social classes of Tibet
owl:sameAs
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom
foaf:depiction
foaf:isPrimaryTopicOf
is dbpedia-owl:wikiPageRedirects of
is dbpedia-owl:wikiPageWikiLink of
is foaf:primaryTopic of