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dbpedia-owl:abstract
  • Les ruées vers l'or en Australie ont commencé en 1851, lorsqu'un prospecteur, Edward Hammond Hargraves revendiqua avoir découvert de l'or près de Bathurst, en Nouvelle-Galles du Sud, en un lieu qu'il appela Ophir. Six mois plus tard, de l'or était trouvé au Victoria, d'abord à Warrandyte et Ballarat puis, un peu plus tard, à Bendigo Creek. De l'or a été trouvé plus tard dans toutes les autres colonies australiennes (connues plus tard comme des États ou Territoires). Quelques-unes des plus grosses pétites y sont découvertes : en 1858, une pépite de 69 kg. et en 1869, la plus grosse pépite jamais trouvée, la Welcome Stranger, de 72 kg. En 1872, le plus gros amas d'or, mêlé de quartz, est découvert à Hill Hend. Il pèse 235 kg.Durant les années 1850 et 1860, de nombreux chercheurs d'or, déçus de la Californie, sont attirés par la facilité de la prospection : la poussière d'or jonche parfois le sol et les grosses pépites sont courantes. Ceci provoque une rapide expansion de la population qui passe en dix ans de 400 000 à 1, 2 million d'habitants et de l'immigration multiethnique, permettant un certain enrichissement. Des bourses pour l'échange des valeurs des sociétés minières sont ouvertes, notamment celle de Charters Towers qui devient pour quelques années l'une des plus grandes bourses du monde. Cette rapide croissance provoque aussi certaines tensions sociales - comme la rébellion d'Eureka Stockade en 1854 - ce qui a accéléré l'introduction du suffrage universel au Victoria et peut être considéré comme la première expression d'un sentiment national. Au cours de cette période d'euphorie des années 1850 et 1860, on commença la construction d'un grand nombre de bâtiments institutionnels aux villes comme Melbourne et Geelong.Les bushrangers connurent certainement leur apogée à l'époque de la ruée vers l'or.
  • Demam emas Australia dimulai tahun 1851 ketika Edward Hammond Hargraves menemukan emas yang dapat dibayarkan dekat Bathurst, New South Wales, di situs yang disebut Ophir oleh Edward Hargraves. Enam bulan kemudian, emas ditemukan di Victoria di Warrandyte dan Ballarat, dan tidak lama kemudian di Bendigo Creek. Emas kemudian ditemukan di seluruh koloni Australia.
  • La fiebre del oro australiana comenzó en 1851 cuando el buscador de oro Edward Hammond Hargraves anuncio el descubrimiento de oro en cercanías de Bathurst, Nueva Gales del Sur, en un sitio que Edward Hargraves denominó Ophir. Seis meses más tarde, se encontró oro en Victoria. Con anterioridad al descubrimiento de Hargraves, gran cantidad de oro había sido descubierto por otros incluyendo al Reverendo WB Clarke en 1841 con decubrimientos adicionales en 1844. Cuando Clarke le informó de su descubrimiento a George Gipps el gobernador de Nueva Gales del Sur, Gipps le dijo a Clarke: "Escóndalo, señor Clarke, o nos cortarán la garganta!". El hallazgo de oro en una sociedad de convictos no era una noticia buena. Si bien los gobiernos de NSW y Victoria posteriormente premiaron a Clarke por su contribución, sus premios financieros no fueron de la talla de los que obtuvo Hargraves.
  • The Australian gold rushes were periods of significant migration of workers, both more locally and from overseas, to areas which had discoveries of gold deposits. A number of gold finds occurred in Australia prior to 1851, but only the gold found from 1851 onwards created gold rushes. This is mainly because, prior to 1851, the colonial government of New South Wales (Victoria did not become a separate colony until July 1851, and Tasmania did not become a separate colony until 1856) had suppressed news of gold finds which it believed would reduce the workforce and destabilise the economy.After the California gold rush began in 1848, causing many people to leave Australia for California to look for gold there, the New South Wales government rethought its position, and sought approval from the Colonial Office in England to allow the exploitation of the mineral resources and also offered rewards for the finding of payable gold. A man saw simalarities between the Californian landscape and that of Victoria(which back then was called New South Wales as Victoria and Queensland had not formed yet) and began to pan for gold. He found a small nugget and then took his findings to the government. The government decided to keep this hidden from the population. Several other people found gold and did not tell anyone.The first gold rush in Australia began in May 1851 after prospector Edward Hargraves claimed to have discovered payable gold near Bathurst, at a site he called Ophir. Although he wasn't the first. Hargraves had been to the Californian goldfields and had learned new gold prospecting techniques such as panning and cradling. Hargraves was offered a reward by both the Colony of New South Wales and the Colony of Victoria. Before the end of the year, the gold rush had spread to many other parts of the state where gold had been found, not just to the west, but also to the south and north of Sydney.The Australian gold rushes changed the aboriginal view of Australia. These hopefuls, termed diggers, brought new skills and professions, contributing to a burgeoning economy. The mateship that evolved between these diggers and their collective resistance to authority led to the emergence of an unique national identity. Although not all diggers found riches on the goldfields, many decided to stay and integrate into these communities.In July 1851, Victoria's first gold rush began on the Clunes goldfield. In August, the gold rush had spread to include the goldfield at Buninyong (today a suburb of Ballarat) 45 km (28 m) away and, by early September 1851, to the nearby goldfield at Ballarat (then also known as Yuille's Diggings), followed in early September to the goldfield at Castlemaine (then known as Forest Creek and the Mount Alexander Goldfield) and the goldfield at Bendigo (then known as Bendigo Creek) in November 1851. Gold, just as in New South Wales, was also found in many other parts of the state. The Victorian Gold Discovery Committee wrote in 1854:The discovery of the Victorian Goldfields has converted a remote dependency into a country of world wide fame; it has attracted a population, extraordinary in number, with unprecedented rapidity; it has enhanced the value of property to an enormous extent; it has made this the richest country in the world; and, in less than three years, it has done for this colony the work of in age, and made its impulses felt in the most distant regions of the earth.When the rush began at Ballarat, diggers discovered it was a prosperous goldfield. Lieutenant-Governor, Charles La Trobe visited the site and watched five men uncover 136 ounces of gold in one day. Mount Alexander was even more rich than Ballarat. With gold sitting just under the surface, the shallowness allowed diggers to easily unearth gold nuggets. In 7 months, 2.4 million pounds of gold was transported from Mount Alexander to nearby capital cities.The gold rushes caused a huge influx of people from overseas. Australia's total population more than tripled from 430,000 in 1851 to 1.7 million in 1871. Australia first became a multicultural society during the gold rush period. Between 1852 and 1860, 290,000 people migrated to Victoria from the British Isles, 15,000 came from other European countries, and 18,000 emigrated from the United States. Non-European immigrants, however, were unwelcome, especially the Chinese. The Chinese were particularly industrious, with techniques that differed widely from the Europeans. This and their physical appearance and fear of the unknown led to them to being persecuted in a racist way that would be regarded as untenable today. In 1855, 11,493 Chinese arrived in Melbourne. Chinese travelling outside of New South Wales had to obtain special re-entry certificates. In 1855, Victoria enacted the Chinese Immigration Act 1855, severely limiting the number of Chinese passengers permitted on an arriving vessel. To evade the new law, many Chinese were landed in the south-east of South Australia and travelled more than 400 km across country to the Victorian goldfields, along tracks which are still evident today.In 1885, following a call by the Western Australian government for a reward for the first find of payable gold, a discovery was made at Halls Creek, sparking a gold rush in that state.
  • La febre de l'or australiana va començar el 1851 quan el buscador d'or Edward Hammond Hargraves anuncià el descobriment d'or a les rodalies de Bathurst, Nova Gal·les del Sud, en un lloc que Edward Hargraves va denominar Ophir.Sis mesos més tard, es va trobar or a Victòria. Abans del descobriment de Hargraves, ja s'havia trobat una gran quantitat d'or. Un dels descobridors va ser William Branwhite Clarke el 1841 i més tard al 1844. Quan Clarke va informar sobre el seu descobriment a George Gipps, el governador de Nova Gal·les del Sud, Gibbs li va dir: "Amagui'l, senyor Clarke, o ens tallaran el coll!". El descobriment d'or en una societat de convictes no era una bona notícia. Si bé els governs de Nova Gal·les del Sud i Victòria van premiar més tard Clarke per la seva contribució, els seus premis financers no van ser tan grans dels que va obtenir Hargraves.
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  • Les ruées vers l'or en Australie ont commencé en 1851, lorsqu'un prospecteur, Edward Hammond Hargraves revendiqua avoir découvert de l'or près de Bathurst, en Nouvelle-Galles du Sud, en un lieu qu'il appela Ophir. Six mois plus tard, de l'or était trouvé au Victoria, d'abord à Warrandyte et Ballarat puis, un peu plus tard, à Bendigo Creek. De l'or a été trouvé plus tard dans toutes les autres colonies australiennes (connues plus tard comme des États ou Territoires).
  • Demam emas Australia dimulai tahun 1851 ketika Edward Hammond Hargraves menemukan emas yang dapat dibayarkan dekat Bathurst, New South Wales, di situs yang disebut Ophir oleh Edward Hargraves. Enam bulan kemudian, emas ditemukan di Victoria di Warrandyte dan Ballarat, dan tidak lama kemudian di Bendigo Creek. Emas kemudian ditemukan di seluruh koloni Australia.
  • La fiebre del oro australiana comenzó en 1851 cuando el buscador de oro Edward Hammond Hargraves anuncio el descubrimiento de oro en cercanías de Bathurst, Nueva Gales del Sur, en un sitio que Edward Hargraves denominó Ophir. Seis meses más tarde, se encontró oro en Victoria. Con anterioridad al descubrimiento de Hargraves, gran cantidad de oro había sido descubierto por otros incluyendo al Reverendo WB Clarke en 1841 con decubrimientos adicionales en 1844.
  • La febre de l'or australiana va començar el 1851 quan el buscador d'or Edward Hammond Hargraves anuncià el descobriment d'or a les rodalies de Bathurst, Nova Gal·les del Sud, en un lloc que Edward Hargraves va denominar Ophir.Sis mesos més tard, es va trobar or a Victòria. Abans del descobriment de Hargraves, ja s'havia trobat una gran quantitat d'or. Un dels descobridors va ser William Branwhite Clarke el 1841 i més tard al 1844.
  • The Australian gold rushes were periods of significant migration of workers, both more locally and from overseas, to areas which had discoveries of gold deposits. A number of gold finds occurred in Australia prior to 1851, but only the gold found from 1851 onwards created gold rushes.
rdfs:label
  • Ruées vers l'or en Australie
  • Australian gold rushes
  • Demam emas Australia
  • Febre de l'or a Austràlia
  • Fiebres del oro en Australia
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