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  • Ba'athist Iraq covers the history of the Republic of Iraq from 1968 to 2003, during the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule. This period began with high economic growth and soaring prosperity, but ended with Iraq facing social, political, and economic stagnation. The average annual income decreased because of several external factors, and several internal policies of the regime.Iraqi President Abdul Rahman Arif, and Iraqi Prime Minister Tahir Yahya, were ousted during a July 17 coup d'état led by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr of the Ba'ath Party, which had previously held power in 1963 and was led primarily by al-Bakr, its leader, and Saddam Hussein. Hussein through his post as de facto chief of the party's intelligence services, became the country's de facto leader by the mid-1970s, and became de jure leader in 1979 when he succeeded al-Bakr in office as President. During al-Bakr's de jure rule, the country's economy grew, and Iraq's standing within the Arab world increased. However, several internal factors were threatening the country's stability, among them the country's conflict with Iran and the Shia Muslim community. An external problem was the border conflict with Iran, which would contribute to the Iran–Iraq War.Hussein became President of Iraq, Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council, Prime Minister and General Secretary of the Regional Command of the Ba'ath Party in 1979, during a wave of anti-regime protests in Iraq led by the Shia community. The Ba'ath Party, which was secular in nature, harshly repressed the protests. Another policy change was Iraq's foreign policy towards Iran, a Shia Muslim country. Deteriorating relations eventually led to the Iran–Iraq War, which started in 1980 when Iraq launched a full-scale invasion of Iran. Following the 1979 Iranian revolution, the Iraqis believed the Iranians to be weak, and thus an easy target for their military. This notion proved to be incorrect, and the war lasted for eight years. Iraq's economy deteriorated during the war, and the country became dependent on foreign donations to fund their war effort. The war ended in a stalemate when a ceasefire was reached in 1988, which resulted in a status quo ante bellum.When the war ended, Iraq found itself in the midst of an economic depression, owed millions of dollars to foreign countries, and was unable to repay its creditors. Kuwait, which had deliberately increased oil output following the war, reduced international oil prices, which further weakened the Iraqi economy. In response to this, Hussein threatened Kuwait that, unless it reduced its oil output, Iraq would invade. Negotiations broke down, and on August 2, 1990, Iraq launched an invasion of Kuwait. The resulting international outcry led to the Persian Gulf War, which Iraq lost. The United Nations (U.N.) initiated economic sanctions in the war's aftermath to weaken the Ba'athist Iraqi government. The country's economic conditions worsened during the 1990s, and at the turn of the 21st century, Iraq's economy started to grow again as several states ignored U.N. sanctions. In the wake of the September 11 attacks of 2001, the United States, under President George W. Bush, initiated a Global War on Terrorism, and labelled Iraq as a part of an "Axis of Evil". The United States, along with several other allied countries, invaded Iraq in March 2003, and the Ba'athist Iraqi government was deposed less than a month later.
  • イラク共和国الجمهورية العراقية (アラビア語)كۆماری عێراق (クルド語)イラクの位置このページでは、1963年(第1次)と1968年から2003年までの間(第2次)、イラクを支配したバアス党政権について、第2次政権を中心に解説する。国号は現在と同じイラク共和国であり、シリアなど他国のバアス党政権と区別する場合はイラク・バアス党政権(Ba'athist Iraq)とも称される。
  • A História do Iraque (1968-2003), também conhecida como Iraque Baathista, abrange o período de domínio do Partido Árabe Socialista Baath. Este período começou com um alto crescimento econômico e prosperidade crescente, mas terminou com o Iraque enfrentando a estagnação social, política e econômica. O rendimento médio anual diminuiu, devido à diversos fatores externos, e políticas internas do regime.Abdul Rahman Arif, o presidente, e Tahir Yahya, o primeiro-ministro, foram expulsos durante um golpe de estado liderado por Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr do Partido Baath. O Partido Baath, que anteriormente detinha o poder em 1963, foi liderado primariamente por al-Bakr, seu líder, e Saddam Hussein. Saddam, através de seu posto como o chefe de facto dos serviços de inteligência do partido, tornou-se o líder de facto do país em meados de 1970, e tornou-se o líder de jure em 1979, quando ele sucedeu al-Bakr como presidente em exercício. Durante o governo de jure de al-Bakr, a economia do Iraque floresceu, e a posição do Iraque no mundo árabe aumentou. No entanto, vários fatores internos estavam ameaçando a estabilidade do país, entre eles o conflito do país com os curdos e a comunidade muçulmana xiita. Um problema externo foi o conflito na fronteira com o Irã, o que contribuiu para a Guerra Irã-Iraque.Saddam Hussein tornou-se presidente, chefe do Conselho de Comando Revolucionário, primeiro-ministro e secretário-geral do Comando Regional do Partido Baath em 1979, durante uma onda de protestos anti-regime no Iraque liderada pela comunidade xiita. O Partido Baath, que era de natureza secular, reprimiu severamente os protestos. Outra mudança foi a política externa do Iraque para o Irã, um país muçulmano xiita. A deterioração das relações eventualmente levaram à Guerra Irã-Iraque, que começou quando o Iraque iniciou uma invasão em larga escala do Irã, em 1980. O Irã, que havia acabado de passar por uma revolução, se considerava fraco, e uma presa fácil para a máquina militar iraquiana. Isto provou estar errado, e a guerra durou oito anos. A economia se deteriorou durante a guerra, e o Iraque tornou-se dependente de doações estrangeiras para continuar o esforço de guerra. Um cessar-fogo foi alcançado em 1988, que resultou em um status quo ante bellum.Com o fim da guerra, o Iraque viu-se no meio de uma depressão econômica. O país devia milhões de dólares para países estrangeiros, e foi incapaz de pagar a seus credores. O Kuwait, que havia deliberadamente aumentado a produção de petróleo após a guerra, reduziu os preços internacionais do petróleo e enfraqueceu ainda mais a economia iraquiana. Em reação a isto, Saddam Hussein ameaçou invadir o Kuwait se o país não diminuísse a produção de petróleo. As negociações fracassaram, e em 2 de agosto o Iraque iniciou a invasão do Kuwait. A indignação internacional levou à Guerra do Golfo, que o Iraque perdeu. A Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU) iniciou as sanções econômicas no pós-guerra para enfraquecer o regime de Saddam Hussein. As condições econômicas do país pioraram na década de 1990. Até o fim da década de 1990, e o início dos anos 2000, a economia do Iraque começou a crescer novamente, porque diversos estados ignoraram as sanções das Nações Unidas. No rastro dos Ataques de 11 de Setembro de 2001, os Estados Unidos no governo de George W. Bush deram início a uma guerra contra o terrorismo, e rotularam o Iraque como parte do chamado Eixo do Mal. Os Estados Unidos invadiram o Iraque em 2003, e o regime Baath de longa duração finalmente foi derrubado.
  • Ba'ath Irak atau Irak di bawah Ba'ath mengacu pada periode sejarah Irak pada tahun 1968 sampai 2003 saat dikuasai partai Ba'ath.Periode ini dimulai dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang tinggi dan kemakmuran yang melonjak , tetapi berakhir dengan Irak menghadapi stagnasi sosial, politik , dan ekonomi . Pendapatan tahunan rata-rata menurun karena beberapa faktor eksternal , dan beberapa kebijakan internal rezim.Presiden Irak Abdul Rahman Arif , dan Perdana Menteri Irak Tahir Yahya , yang digulingkan selama kudeta 17 Juli yang dipimpin oleh Ahmed Hassan al - Bakr dari Partai Ba'ath , yang sebelumnya memegang kekuasaan pada tahun 1963 dan dipimpin terutama oleh al - Bakr , pemimpinnya , dan Saddam Hussein . Hussein melalui jabatannya sebagai kepala dinas intelijen de factopartai , menjadi pemimpin negara de facto pada pertengahan 1970-an , dan menjadi pemimpin de jure pada tahun 1979 ketika ia berhasil al - Bakr di kantor sebagai Presiden . Selama de jure pemerintahan al- Bakr , perekonomian negara berkembang, dan Irak dalam dunia Arab meningkat . Namun , beberapa faktor internal mengancam stabilitas negara , di antaranya konflik negara Irak dengan Iran dan komunitas Muslim Syiah . Masalah eksternal adalah konflik perbatasan dengan Iran , yang akan berkontribusi pada Perang Iran-Irak .Hussein menjadi Presiden Irak , Ketua Komando Dewan Revolusi , Perdana Menteri dan Sekretaris Jenderal Komando Daerah Partai Ba'ath tahun 1979 , selama gelombang protes anti-rezim di Irak yang dipimpin oleh komunitas Syiah . Partai Ba'ath , yang sekuler , kasar dan menindas protes . Perubahan kebijakan lain adalah kebijakan luar negeri Irak terhadap Iran , yang merupakan negara mayoritas Muslim Syiah . Memburuknya hubungan akhirnya menyebabkan Perang Iran-Irak , yang dimulai pada tahun 1980 ketika Irak melancarkan invasi skala penuh ke Iran . Setelah revolusi Iran tahun 1979 , rakyat Irak percaya bahwa Iran menjadi lemah , dan dengan demikian merupakan sasaran empuk untuk militer mereka. Gagasan ini terbukti tidak benar , dan perang berlangsung selama delapan tahun . Perekonomian Irak memburuk selama perang , dan negara menjadi tergantung pada donasi asing untuk mendanai upaya perang mereka. Perang berakhir dengan jalan buntu ketika gencatan senjata dicapai pada tahun 1988 , yang mengakibatkan status quo ante bellum .Ketika perang berakhir , Irak melihat dirinya di tengah-tengah depresi ekonomi , berutang jutaan dolar ke luar negeri , dan tidak mampu membayar kreditur . Kuwait, yang sengaja meningkatkan produksi minyak setelah perang , mengurangi harga minyak internasional , yang selanjutnya melemahkan ekonomi Irak . Menanggapi hal ini , Saddam Hussein mengancam Kuwait . Negosiasi gagal , dan pada tanggal 2 Agustus 1990, Irak melakukan invasi ke Kuwait . Kecaman internasional menyebabkan Perang Teluk Persia , yang hilang Irak . Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa ( PBB ) memprakarsai sanksi ekonomi setelah perang untuk melemahkan pemerintah Irak Ba'athist . Kondisi ekonomi negara memburuk selama tahun 1990-an , dan pada pergantian abad ke-21 , perekonomian Irak mulai tumbuh lagi seperti beberapa negara mengabaikan sanksi PBB . Bangkit serangan 11 September 2001 , Amerika Serikat , di bawah Presiden George W. Bush , memulai Perang Global Melawan Terorisme , dan memberi label Irak sebagai bagian dari " poros Setan" . Amerika Serikat , bersama dengan beberapa negara-negara sekutu lainnya , menginvasi Irak pada Maret 2003 , dan pemerintah Irak Ba'athist digulingkan kurang dari sebulan kemudian.
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  • イラク共和国الجمهورية العراقية (アラビア語)كۆماری عێراق (クルド語)イラクの位置このページでは、1963年(第1次)と1968年から2003年までの間(第2次)、イラクを支配したバアス党政権について、第2次政権を中心に解説する。国号は現在と同じイラク共和国であり、シリアなど他国のバアス党政権と区別する場合はイラク・バアス党政権(Ba'athist Iraq)とも称される。
  • A História do Iraque (1968-2003), também conhecida como Iraque Baathista, abrange o período de domínio do Partido Árabe Socialista Baath. Este período começou com um alto crescimento econômico e prosperidade crescente, mas terminou com o Iraque enfrentando a estagnação social, política e econômica.
  • Ba'athist Iraq covers the history of the Republic of Iraq from 1968 to 2003, during the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule. This period began with high economic growth and soaring prosperity, but ended with Iraq facing social, political, and economic stagnation.
  • Ba'ath Irak atau Irak di bawah Ba'ath mengacu pada periode sejarah Irak pada tahun 1968 sampai 2003 saat dikuasai partai Ba'ath.Periode ini dimulai dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang tinggi dan kemakmuran yang melonjak , tetapi berakhir dengan Irak menghadapi stagnasi sosial, politik , dan ekonomi .
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  • Ba'athist Iraq
  • Irak di bawah Baath
  • Iraque Baathista
  • バアス党政権 (イラク)
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