La philosophie de Friedrich Nietzsche a acquis une très grande renommée à partir des années 1890, et elle a eu une profonde influence sur le XXe siècle.Du vivant de Nietzsche, sa pensée fut diffusée en Scandinavie par Georg Brandes — le « découvreur » de Nietzsche qui fit des conférences sur lui en 1888, et par August Strindberg).

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  • La philosophie de Friedrich Nietzsche a acquis une très grande renommée à partir des années 1890, et elle a eu une profonde influence sur le XXe siècle.Du vivant de Nietzsche, sa pensée fut diffusée en Scandinavie par Georg Brandes — le « découvreur » de Nietzsche qui fit des conférences sur lui en 1888, et par August Strindberg). Dès la fin du XIXe siècle, son œuvre fut connue en France (début de la traduction de Henri Albert), en Italie, en Pologne, en Russie et en Angleterre.À la fin de sa vie, alors qu’il n’est plus conscient, et au début du XXe siècle, ce sont surtout des artistes, écrivains et penseurs (Khalil Gibran, André Gide, Hermann Hesse, Nikos Kazantzakis, Thomas Mann, Albert Schweitzer), des psychologues (sa conception de l'homme animal déterminé par l'économie de ses pulsions influença[réf. nécessaire] également Freud) et certaines idéologies politiques de droite comme de gauche (socialisme, anarchisme, nationalisme allemand) qui s’inspirent de sa pensée. En revanche, sa philosophie intéresse peu les philosophes.Dans les années 1930, les œuvres de Nietzsche furent récupérées par les nazis et les fascistes italiens. Elles devinrent ensuite, dans les années 1960, une référence pour de nombreux intellectuels français. Pendant cette période, cette influence concerne surtout la philosophie continentale. Dans le domaine anglo-saxon, Nietzsche avait en effet été très tôt condamné par Bertrand Russell et d’autres philosophes analytiques.À partir de l'édition Colli-Montinari, tous les commentateurs purent accéder aux carnets de Nietzsche, au lieu de recourir à des éditions de fragments posthumes qui ne respectaient pas l'ordre chronologique, et qui se présentaient parfois comme l'œuvre inachevée de Nietzsche qu'il n'aurait pas eu le temps de terminer. Ces éditions, fautives et non scientifiques par leur caractère sélectif, se sont révélées être des mystifications, puisqu'il est établi depuis les années 1930 que Nietzsche avait abandonné l'idée d'écrire une somme de son "système" (voir La Volonté de puissance).
  • Dieser Artikel behandelt die Nietzsche-Rezeption. Das Werk des Philosophen Friedrich Nietzsche hat seit dem Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts eine ungewöhnlich vielfältige Wirkung entfaltet.
  • Friedrich Nietzsche's influence and reception varied widely and may be roughly divided into various chronological periods. Reactions were anything but uniform, and proponents of various ideologies attempted to appropriate his work quite early. By 1937, this led Georges Bataille to argue against any "instrumentalization" of Nietzsche's thought, paradoxically as a social-anarchist himself; Bataille the passionate, determined socialist anti-Fascist felt that any simple-minded interpretation or unified ideological characterization of Nietzsche's work granting predominance to any particular aspect failed to do justice to the body of his work as a whole.Beginning while Nietzsche was still alive, though incapacitated by mental illness, many Germans discovered his appeals for greater heroic individualism and personality development in Thus Spoke Zarathustra, but responded to those appeals in diverging ways. He had some following among left-wing Germans in the 1890s; in 1894–95, mainly a group of Protestant Christian German conservatives wanted to ban his work as subversive. During the late 19th century, in dark irony, Nietzsche's "aristocratic radical" ideas were commonly associated with the various anarchist movements (Nietzsche famously declared anarchism a form of "MIS-archism", or hatred for life and power itself); Nietzschean intellectual influence did allow anarchist theory to overthrow all Marxist thralldom, paving the way for what is now called post-leftism or even Third Positionism. Nietzsche's anarchistic influence was particularly strong in France and the United States. Nietzsche, as a staunch philo-Semite ("Nietzschean eugenics" entailed mixing the Prussian military officer class with the most intellectual Jews) and as a violently anti-populist opponent of pan-German volkism, indeed had a distinct appeal for many Zionist thinkers around the start of the 20th century. Theodore Herzl incorporated Nietzschean ideas of honor, war, and statecraft into his Zionist philosophy and specified the future "Jewish state" was to resemble, in a sense, the Prussian caste state of feudalistic aristocrats dedicated to war as a path of life. Nietzsche and Herzl both opposed the Christian God as the degeneration of the primordial, Dionysian Deity of Yahweh, the tribal God of Israel instead of the passive sufferer of cosmopolitan Christianity. It has been argued, not without reason, Nietzsche's work greatly influenced Theodore Herzl, and Martin Buber went so far as to extol Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life".By World War I, however, he had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for right-wing German militarism. The reality was Nietzsche was an opponent of volkist pan-Germanism and advocated a nobiliary, trans-national pan-Europeanism incorporating the cultural-spiritual elite from all Western nations—including Judea or Israel. But in the pan-Germanic atmosphere, few understand Nietzsche except in his aphorisms of generality encouraging to any individual: German soldiers even received copies of Thus Spoke Zarathustra as gifts during World War I. The Dreyfus Affair provides another example of his reception: the French anti-semitic Right labelled the Jewish and Leftist intellectuals who defended Alfred Dreyfus as "Nietzscheans". Such seemingly paradoxical acceptance by diametrically opposed camps is typical of the history of the reception of Nietzsche's thought. In the context of the rise of French fascism, one researcher notes, "Although, as much recent work has stressed, Nietzsche had an important impact on "leftist" French ideology and theory, this should not obscure the fact that his work was also crucial to the right and to the neither right nor left fusions of developing French fascism.Indeed, as Ernst Nolte proposed, Maurassian ideology of "aristocratic revolt against egalitarian-utopian 'transcendence'" (transcendence being Nolte's term for the ontological absence of theodic center justifying modern "emancipation culture"), the interrelation between Nietzschean ideology and proto-fascism offer extensive space for criticism and the Nietzschean ambiance pervading French ideological fermentation of extremism in time birthing formal Fascism, is unavoidable.Many political leaders of the twentieth century were at least superficially familiar with Nietzsche's ideas. However, it is not always possible to determine whether or not they actually read his work. Regarding Hitler, for example, there is a debate. Some authors claim that he probably never read Nietzsche, or that if he did, his reading was not extensive. Nevertheless, others point to a Hitler's speech in Hitler's Table Talk, where the dictator mentioned Nietzsche when he spoke about what he called "great men", as an indication that Hitler may have been familiarized with Nietzsche's work. Other authors like Melendez (2001) point out to the parallelism between Hitler's and Nietzsche's titanic anti-egalitarianism, and the idea of the "übermensch", a term which was frequently used by Hitler and Mussolini to refer to the so-called "Aryan race", or rather, its projected future after Fascist engineering.Alfred Rosenberg, an influential Nazi ideologist, also delivered a speech in which he related National Socialism to Nietzsche's ideology. Broadly speaking, the Nazis made very selective use of Nietzsche's philosophy, and eventually, this association caused Nietzsche's reputation to suffer following World War II.On the other hand, it is known that Mussolini was intellectually vibrant and a true reader of books and theories; Mussolini early on heard lectures about Nietzsche, Vilfred Pareto, and others in ideologically forming Fascism. His Jewish girlfriend Margherita Sarfatti relates that Nietzsche virtually was the transforming factor in Mussolini's "conversion" from hard Socialism to spiritualistic, ascetic Fascism, as did Charles de Gaulle. It has been suggested that Theodore Roosevelt read Nietzsche and was profoundly influenced by him, and in more recent years, Richard Nixon read Nietzsche with "curious interest".According to the modern consensus, Nietzsche's greatest political legacy lies in his 20th century interpreters, among them Martin Heidegger, Pierre Klossowski, Georges Bataille, Leo Strauss, Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze (and Félix Guattari), and Jacques Derrida—ironically all egalitarians Nietzsche would have nothing to do with realistically. Foucault's later writings, for example, revise Nietzsche's genealogical method to develop anti-foundationalist theories of power that divide and fragment rather than unite polities (as evinced in the liberal tradition of political theory). Deleuze, arguably the foremost of Nietzsche's Leftist interpreters, used the much-maligned "will to power" thesis in tandem with Marxian notions of commodity surplus and Freudian ideas of desire to articulate concepts such as the rhizome and other "outsides" to state power as traditionally conceived. Nietzsche explicitly affirms what he understand as the meaning of the will to power sociopolitically, and the reader is given the chance to acquiesce to the Marxist-Freudian consensus:A legal order thought of as sovereign and universal, not a means in the struggle between power-complexes, but as a means of preventing all struggle in general - perhaps after the communistic cliche of Dühring, that every will must consider every other will its equal - would be a principle hostile to life, an agent of the dissolution and destruction of man, an attempt to assassinate the future of man, a sign of weariness, a secret path to nothingness. Thus, to say the least, the anti-foundationalist and post-structuralist interpretation of the "utopian Nietzsche" is hardly uniform and many serious analysts of Nietzschean scholarship are growing in the realization Nietzsche was not an "elitist" merely aesthetically, as if merely a theatrical game or "simulacrum", but belonged firmly in the historical Western conservative revolutionary movement and increasing skepticism is growing against the Marxist-Freudian, post-modernist portrayal of Nietzsche as flawed.
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  • Auteur:Friedrich Nietzsche
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  • Friedrich Nietzsche
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  • La philosophie de Friedrich Nietzsche a acquis une très grande renommée à partir des années 1890, et elle a eu une profonde influence sur le XXe siècle.Du vivant de Nietzsche, sa pensée fut diffusée en Scandinavie par Georg Brandes — le « découvreur » de Nietzsche qui fit des conférences sur lui en 1888, et par August Strindberg).
  • Dieser Artikel behandelt die Nietzsche-Rezeption. Das Werk des Philosophen Friedrich Nietzsche hat seit dem Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts eine ungewöhnlich vielfältige Wirkung entfaltet.
  • Friedrich Nietzsche's influence and reception varied widely and may be roughly divided into various chronological periods. Reactions were anything but uniform, and proponents of various ideologies attempted to appropriate his work quite early.
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  • Réception de la pensée de Nietzsche
  • Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche
  • Influenza e fortuna del pensiero di Nietzsche
  • Nietzsche-Rezeption
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