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  • La place des femmes dans l'Église catholique est souvent discutée de nos jours. Les grands principes de la hiérarchie catholique (égalité en dignité entre femmes et hommes, reconnaissance de femmes comme bienheureuses, saintes, Docteurs de l'Église, voire Mère de Dieu, pas d'ordination de prêtresses, etc.), s'alignent sur les positions traditionnelles - avec, à la fois, une ouverture sur certains sujets notamment dans la lettre Mulieris dignitatem du pape Jean-Paul II, et une fin de non recevoir aux revendications d'égalité des féministes.
  • In the history of the Catholic Church, laywomen and women in religious institutes have played a variety of roles and the church has affected societal attitudes to women throughout the world in significant ways. Women constitute the majority of members of the consecrated life within the Catholic Church: in 2010, there were around 721,935 professed religious women.Prominent women in the life of the church have included everything from Old Testament figures, to the Virgin Mary and female disciples of Jesus, to theologians, abbesses, monarchs, missionaries, mystics, martyrs, scientists, nurses, hospital administrators, educationalists and religious sisters. Motherhood is given an exalted status within the Catholic faith, with Mary the Mother of Jesus officially known as Queen of Heaven. The special role and devotion accorded to Mary and Marian devotion has been a central theme of Catholic art. Conversely, the role of Eve in the Garden of Eden and other biblical stories affected the development of a Western notion of woman as "temptress".The Gospels suggest Jesus himself broke with convention to provide religious instruction directly to women. While the Twelve Apostles were all male, and there is much debate about the beliefs of early church leaders like St Paul, women were very active in the early spread of Christianity. There have been many female saints and many devotions started by women. Medieval abbesses enjoyed considerable power and influence and women have played an important role in Catholicism through convents and abbeys, particularly in the establishment of schools, hospitals, nursing homes and monastic settlements, through religious institutes of nuns or sisters like the Benedictines, Dominicans, Sisters of Saint Francis, Loreto Sisters, Sisters of Mercy, Little Sisters of the Poor, Josephites, and Missionaries of Charity. In the early 21st century, the largest of all religious institutes for women was the Salesian Sisters of Don Bosco with around 14,000 members. Religious vocations for women have been declining in Europe, Oceania and America. They have increased in Asia and Africa.Through its support for institutionalised learning, the Catholic church produced many of the world's first great women scientists and scholars - including the physicians Trotula of Salerno (11th century) and Dorotea Bucca (d 1436), the philosopher Elena Piscopia (d 1684) and the mathematician Maria Agnesi (d 1799). Four women are honoured as Doctors of the Church: German mystic Hildegard of Bingen, Spanish mystic, Teresa of Ávila; Italian mystic Catherine of Siena and the French nun Thérèse de Lisieux. Other Catholic women have risen to international prominence through charitable mission works and social justice campaigns—as with hospitals pioneer St Marianne Cope, Nobel Peace Prize winner Mother Teresa, or anti-death penalty campaigner Sister Helen Prejean.The Church has influenced the status of women in various ways: condemning infanticide, divorce, incest, polygamy and counting the marital infidelity of men as equally sinful to that of women. The Church holds abortion and contraception to be sinful, thus affecting the reproductive practices of women. The role of women in the Church has become a controversial topic in Catholic social thought. Christianity's overall effect on women is a matter of historical debate—it rose out of patriarchal societies but offered a lessening of the gulf between men and women. The institution of the convent has offered a space for female self-government, power and influence through many centuries. Nevertheless, according to some modern critiques, the Church's largely male hierarchy and refusal to ordain women implies "inferiority" of women. New feminism and Feminist theology deal extensively with Catholic attitudes to women.
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  • La place des femmes dans l'Église catholique est souvent discutée de nos jours.
  • In the history of the Catholic Church, laywomen and women in religious institutes have played a variety of roles and the church has affected societal attitudes to women throughout the world in significant ways.
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  • Place des femmes dans l'Église catholique
  • Catholic Church and women
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