Une phycotoxine est une toxine produite par les algues, notamment les algues unicellulaires. Ces toxines provoquent le plus souvent des intoxications alimentaires, sans qu'il y ait besoin de la présence du germe. C'est le cas des toxines produites par les algues unicellulaire du genre Dinophyta par exemple et qu'on retrouve dans les fruits de mer.

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dbpedia-owl:abstract
  • Une phycotoxine est une toxine produite par les algues, notamment les algues unicellulaires. Ces toxines provoquent le plus souvent des intoxications alimentaires, sans qu'il y ait besoin de la présence du germe. C'est le cas des toxines produites par les algues unicellulaire du genre Dinophyta par exemple et qu'on retrouve dans les fruits de mer. Ces cas se produisent lors d'efflorescence algale.La ciguatera est un ichtyosarcotoxisme, c'est-à-dire une intoxication alimentaire due à l'ingestion de chair de poisson, contaminée par des phycotoxines.
  • Phycotoxins (from Greek, phykos, “seaweed”; and toxikon, “toxin”) are complex allelopathic chemicals produced by eukaryotic and prokaryotic algal secondary metabolic pathways. More simply, these are toxic chemicals synthesized by photosynthetic organisms. These metabolites are (in most cases) not harmful to the producer but may be toxic to either one or many members of the marine food web. This page focuses on phycotoxins produced by marine microalgae; however, freshwater algae and macroalgae are known phycotoxin producers and may exhibit analogous ecological dynamics.In the pelagic marine food web, phytoplankton are subjected to grazing by macro- and micro-zooplankton as well as competition for nutrients with other phytoplankton species. Marine bacteria try to obtain a share of organic carbon by maintaining symbiotic, parasitic, commensal, or predatory interactions with phytoplankton. Other bacteria will degrade dead phytoplankton or consume organic carbon released by viral lysis. The production of toxins is one strategy that phytoplankton use to deal with this broad range of predators, competitors, and parasites. Smetacek suggested that “planktonic evolution is ruled by protection and not competition. The many shapes of plankton reflect defense responses to specific attack systems”. Indeed, phytoplankton retain an abundance of mechanical and chemical defense mechanisms including cell walls, spines, chain/colony formation, and toxic chemical production. These morphological and physiological features have been cited as evidence for strong predatory pressure in the marine environment. However, the importance of competition is also demonstrated by the production of phycotoxins that negatively impact other phytoplankton species.Flagellates (especially dinoflagellates) are the principle producers of phycotoxins; however, there are known toxigenic diatoms, cyanobacteria, prymnesiophytes, and raphidophytes. Because many of these allelochemicals are large and energetically expensive to produce, they are synthesized in small quantities. However, phycotoxins are known to accumulate in other organisms and can reach high concentrations during algal blooms. Additionally, as biologically active metabolites, phycotoxins may produce ecological effects at low concentrations. These effects may be subtle, but have the potential to impact the biogeographic distributions of phytoplankton and bloom dynamics.
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  • Une phycotoxine est une toxine produite par les algues, notamment les algues unicellulaires. Ces toxines provoquent le plus souvent des intoxications alimentaires, sans qu'il y ait besoin de la présence du germe. C'est le cas des toxines produites par les algues unicellulaire du genre Dinophyta par exemple et qu'on retrouve dans les fruits de mer.
  • Phycotoxins (from Greek, phykos, “seaweed”; and toxikon, “toxin”) are complex allelopathic chemicals produced by eukaryotic and prokaryotic algal secondary metabolic pathways. More simply, these are toxic chemicals synthesized by photosynthetic organisms. These metabolites are (in most cases) not harmful to the producer but may be toxic to either one or many members of the marine food web.
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  • Phycotoxine
  • Phycotoxin
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