Peng Dehuai, ou Peng Te-huai (chinois traditionnel : 彭德懷 ; chinois simplifié : 彭德怀 ; pinyin : Péng Déhuái ; Wade-Giles : P'eng Te-huai), né le 24 octobre 1899, mort le 29 novembre 1974, était un militaire et homme politique chinois, cadre du Parti communiste chinois, puis responsable politique de la République populaire de Chine. Il fut l'un des chefs historiques de l'Armée populaire de libération.

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dbpedia-owl:abstract
  • Peng Dehuai, ou Peng Te-huai (chinois traditionnel : 彭德懷 ; chinois simplifié : 彭德怀 ; pinyin : Péng Déhuái ; Wade-Giles : P'eng Te-huai), né le 24 octobre 1899, mort le 29 novembre 1974, était un militaire et homme politique chinois, cadre du Parti communiste chinois, puis responsable politique de la République populaire de Chine. Il fut l'un des chefs historiques de l'Armée populaire de libération.
  • Peng Dehuai (txinera sinplifikatuaz: 彭德怀; tradizionalaz: 彭德懷; pinyinez: Péng Déhuái; Peng Te-Huai izenez ere ezaguna; Xiangtan, Hunango probintzia, 1898ko urriaren 24 - Beijing, 1974ko azaroaren 29) Txinako militarra eta politikaria izan zen. Txinatar soldadu borondatezkoen komandante izan zen Koreako Gerran 1950-1953 urteetan. 1954. urtean Txinako Defentsa-ministro eta mariskal izendatu zuten. Mao Tse-Tungek garai hartan bultzatutako politikaren aurka azaldu zen, eta postutik kendu zuten 1959. urtean.
  • Peng Dehuai ya da Ping Dihuai (Basitleştirilmiş Çince: 彭德怀; Geleneksel Çince: 彭德懷; pinyin: Péng Déhuái; Wade–Giles: P'eng Te-huai; d. 1898, Xiangtan, Hunan - ö. 29 Kasım 1974, Pekin, Çin), Çin Komünist Partisi'nin (ÇKP) önde gelen askeri liderlerinden. Çin İç Savaşı, Çin-Japon Savaşı ve Kore Savaşı'nda önemli komutanlık görevlerinde bulunmuş, 1954-1959 arasında Çin Halk Cumhuriyeti savunma bakanlığı yapmıştır. Mao Zedong'un askeri ve ekonomik politikalarını eleştirmesi üzerine görevden uzaklaştırılmıştır.Çan Kay-şek'in komutanlarından biri olan Peng Dehuai, 1927'de solcuların Kuomintang'dan temizlenmesi üzerine ondan koptu ve ertesi yıl Çin Komünist Partisi'ne (ÇKP) girdi. Kısa süre sonra gerilla etkinliklerine katılarak bir dizi köylü ayaklanmasını yönetti. Kızıl Ordu'nun başlıca yöneticilerinden biri durumuna geldi; Mao Zedong'un yönetiminde önemli komutanlıklar üstlendi ve Uzun Yürüyüş'e (1934-35) katıldı.1937'de çıkan Çin-Japon Savaşı'ndan 1954'e değin partinin askeri hiyerarşisinde ikinci adam konumundaydı. Kore Savaşı'nda Çin kuvvetlerini yönetti ve 27 Temmuz 1953'te Panmuncam'da ateşkes anlaşmasını Çin adına imzaladı. 1954'te milli savunma bakanı ve hükümet başkanı yardımcılığına, 1955'te ÇKP Politbüro üyesi oldu. Aynı yıl mareşalliğe yükseltildi.1959'da Mao Zedong'un politikasını eleştirmesinin ardından bakanlıktan ve parti üyeliğinden uzaklaştırıldı. Görevinden uzaklaştırılmasının temel nedeninin, Sovyet örneğine göre kurulan bir ordudan yana olması, Çin ordusunun Lin Biao tarafından savunulan aşırı siyasallaştırılmasına karşı çıkması olduğu sanılır. Kültür Devrimi sırasında, Ocak 1966'da kızıl muhafızlar tarafından tutuklanınca intihar girişiminde bulundu. Mao'nun ölümünden sonra 1978'de saygınlığı iade edildi.
  • 펑더화이(번체: 彭德懷, 간체: 彭德怀, 병음: Péng Déhuái, 팽덕회) (1898년 1월 24일 ~ 1974년 11월 29일) 은 중화인민공화국의 군인, 정치가이다. 중국 10대 원수 중의 한 사람이다.
  • Peng Dehuai (chino tradicional: 彭德懷; chino simplificado: 彭德怀; ) (24 de octubre de 1898 - 29 de noviembre de 1974) fue un un líder militar chino, militante y dirigente del Partido Comunista de China y Ministro de Defensa en la República Popular China entre 1954 y 1959, que combatió a los japoneses en la Segunda Guerra Mundial y luego desempeñó mando de tropas en la Guerra de Corea. Perdió sus cargos por censurar las políticas de Mao Zedong en el Gran Salto Adelante y fue perseguido ferozmente en la Revolución Cultural.
  • Peng Dehuai (Peng Te-huai; simplified Chinese: 彭德怀; traditional Chinese: 彭德懷; pinyin: Péng Déhuái; Wade–Giles: P'eng2 Te2-huai2) (October 24, 1898 – November 29, 1974) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader, and served as China's Defense Minister from 1954 to 1959. Peng was born into a poor peasant family, and received several years of primary education before his family's poverty forced him to suspend his education at the age of ten, and to work for several years as a manual laborer. When he was sixteen, Peng became a professional soldier. Over the next ten years Peng served in the armies of several Hunan-based warlord armies, raising himself from the rank of private second class to major. In 1926 Peng's forces joined the Kuomintang, and Peng was first introduced to communism. Peng participated in the Northern Expedition, and supported Wang Jingwei's attempt to form a left-leaning Kuomintang government based in Wuhan. After Wang was defeated, Peng briefly rejoined Chiang Kai-shek's forces before joining the Chinese Communist Party, allying himself with Mao Zedong and Zhu De.Peng was one of the most senior generals who defended the Jiangxi Soviet from Chiang's attempts to capture it, and his successes were rivaled only by Lin Biao. Peng participated in the Long March, and supported Mao Zedong at the Zunyi Conference, which was critical to Mao's rise to power. During the 1937–1945 Second Sino-Japanese War, Peng was one of the strongest supporters of pursuing a ceasefire with the Kuomintang in order to concentrate China's collective resources on resisting the Japanese Empire. Peng was the senior commander in the combined Kuomintang-Communist efforts to resist the Japanese occupation of Shanxi in 1937; and, by 1938, was in command of 2/3 of the Eighth Route Army. In 1940, Peng conducted the Hundred Regiments Offensive, a massive Communist effort to disrupt Japanese logistical networks across northern China. The Hundred Regiments Offensive was modestly successful, but political disputes within the Communist Party led to Peng being recalled to Yan'an, and he spent the rest of the war without an active command. After the Japanese surrendered, in 1945, Peng was given command of Communist forces in Northwest China. He was the most senior commander responsible for defending the Communist leadership in Shaanxi from Kuomintang forces, saving Mao from being captured at least once. Peng eventually defeated the Kuomintang in Northwest China, captured huge amounts of military supplies, and actively incorporated the huge area, including Xinjiang, into the People's Republic of China.Peng was one of the few senior military leaders who supported Mao's suggestions to involve China directly in the 1950–1953 Korean War, and he served as the direct commander of the Chinese People's Volunteer Army for the first half of the war (though Mao and Zhou Enlai were technically more senior). Peng's experiences in the Korean War (in which Chinese forces suffered over a million casualties, more than any other nation involved in the fighting) convinced him that the Chinese military had to become more professional, organized, and well-equipped in order to prepare itself for the conditions of modern technical warfare. Because the Soviet Union was the only communist country then equipped with a fully modern, professional army, Peng attempted to reform China's military on the Soviet model over the next several years, making the army less political and more professional (contrary to the political goals of Mao). Peng resisted Mao's attempts to develop a personality cult throughout the 1950s; and, when Mao's economic policies associated with the Great Leap Forward caused a nationwide famine, Peng became critical of Mao's leadership. The rivalry between Peng and Mao culminated in an open confrontation between the two at the 1959 Lushan Conference. Mao won this confrontation, labeled Peng as a leader of an "anti-Party clique", and purged Peng from all influential positions for the rest of his life.Peng lived in virtual obscurity until 1965, when the reformers Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping supported Peng's limited return to government, developing military industries in Southwest China. In 1966, following the advent of the Cultural Revolution, Peng was arrested by Red Guards. From 1966–1970, radical factions within the Communist Party, led by Lin Biao and Mao's wife, Jiang Qing, singled out Peng for national persecution, and Peng was publicly humiliated in numerous large-scale struggle sessions and subjected to physical and psychological torture in organized efforts to force Peng to confess his "crimes" against Mao Zedong and the Communist Party. In 1970 Peng was formally tried and sentenced to life imprisonment, and he died in prison in 1974. After Mao died in 1976, Peng's old ally, Deng Xiaoping, emerged as China's paramount leader. Deng led an effort to formally rehabilitate people who had been unjustly persecuted during the Cultural Revolution, and Peng was one of the first leaders to be posthumously rehabilitated, in 1978. In modern China, Peng is considered one of the most successful and highly respected generals in the history of the early Chinese Communist Party.
  • Peng Dehuai (ur. 24 października 1898, zm. 29 listopada 1974) – chiński dowódca wojskowy i polityk komunistyczny, marszałek ChRL.Początkowo żołnierz Armii Kuomintangu, a po buncie przeciwko polityce Czang Kaj-szeka i wstąpieniu w 1928 roku do Komunistycznej Partii Chin Chińskiej Armii Ludowo-Wyzwoleńczej. Jeden z głównych dowódców sił komunistycznych podczas wojny z Japonią i wojny domowej z lat 1946-1950.Podczas wojny koreańskiej dowódca Chińskich Ochotników Ludowych. Pełnił funkcję ministra obrony i wicepremiera, a od 1954 roku wchodził w skład Biura Politycznego Komitetu Centralnego Komunistycznej Partii Chin. Zwolennik rozbudowy i unowocześnienia chińskiej armii, w oparciu o wzorce radzieckie. W 1955 roku został mianowany jednym z dziesięciu marszałków ChRL.Usunięty ze wszystkich zajmowanych stanowisk w 1959 roku za krytykę wielkiego skoku. Po rozpoczęciu rewolucji kulturalnej aresztowany i torturowany; zmarł w więzieniu. Zrehabilitowany pośmiertnie 22 grudnia 1978 roku.== Przypisy ==
  • Peng Dehuai (chinês tradicional: 彭德怀, chinês simplificado: 彭德怀;) (24 de Outubro de 1898 - 29 de Novembro de 1974) foi um proeminente líder militar, ativista e líder do Partido Comunista da China e Ministro da Defesa da República Popular da China entre 1954 e 1959. Combateu na guerra civil chinesa e contra os japoneses na Segunda Guerra Mundial (sendo um importante comandante durante a Segunda Guerra Sino-Japonesa) e mais tarde também serviu como comandante-em-chefe do Exército de Libertação Popular na Guerra da Coréia. Caiu em desgraça depois de criticar as políticas de Mao Tse-tung durante o Grande Salto em Frente e foi ferozmente perseguido durante a Revolução Cultural.== Referências ==
  • 彭徳懐(ほう とくかい、ポン・ドーファイ、1898年10月24日 - 1974年11月29日)は中華人民共和国の軍人・政治家。中華人民共和国元帥。国務院副総理兼国防部長(大臣)、中国共産党中央政治局委員、中央軍事委員会副主席を務めたが、大躍進政策を批判したため失脚。最後は癌に侵されながらも治療を拒否されるなど、紅衛兵らによる虐待の中で死亡した。
  • Пэн Дэхуай (кит. упр. 彭德怀, пиньинь: Péng Déhuái; 24 октября 1898 — 29 ноября 1974) — государственный и военный деятель КНР, заместитель премьера Госсовета КНР и министр обороны КНР (1954—1959), маршал КНР (1955).Известен своей критикой Мао Цзэдуна и проводимой им политики «большого скачка».
  • Peng Dehuai (caratteri cinesi: 彭德懷; pinyin: Péng Déhuái; Xiangtan, 24 ottobre 1898 – Pechino, 29 novembre 1974) è stato un politico cinese. È stato anche un famoso leader militare nonché Capo dell'Esercito.La sua carriera militare iniziò negli anni Venti nelle file dell'esercito del Kuomintang unificato, nel quale divenne comandante di brigata; in quel periodo iniziò a legarsi con politici radicali. Nel 1927, in seguito all'epurazione dei comunisti dal Kuomintang, fu allontanato ed entrò nel Partito Comunista Cinese. Partecipò alla Lunga Marcia ed alla guerra contro il Giappone. In seguito, con la ripresa della Guerra civile tra comunisti e nazionalisti, comandò vittoriosamente la I armata.Durante la Guerra di Corea fu nominato Comandante supremo dell'Esercito e Ministro della Difesa. In seguito si impegnò per una riforma delle Forze armate, volendo dotarle di un'organizzazione moderna. Le sue idee però lo misero in contrasto con Mao, che invece era favorevole ad un Esercito fortemente ideologizzato e portatore degli ideali comunisti.La rottura tra Mao e Peng avvenne nel 1959 alla Conferenza di Lushan, durante la quale Peng criticò aspramente l'operato di Mao nel Grande balzo in avanti; fu quindi destituito dai suoi incarichi e tenuto agli arresti domiciliari fino alla sua morte nel 1974. Al suo posto fu nominato Lin Biao, allora fedelissimo di Mao.
  • Peng Dehuai (chinesisch 彭德懷 / 彭德怀, Pinyin Péng Déhuái, W.-G. P'eng Te-huai; eigentlich Peng Dehua; chin. 彭得华 Péng Déhuá, W.-G. P'eng Te-hua; * 24. Oktober 1898 in Xiangtan, Hunan; † 29. November 1974 in Peking) war einer der wichtigsten militärischen Führer der chinesischen Volksbefreiungsarmee sowie ab 1954 der erste Verteidigungsminister der Volksrepublik China. Peng Dehuai war der einzige führende Politiker, der offen Kritik an Mao Zedongs Großem Sprung nach vorn übte.
  • Advertiment: a Xina els cognoms van davant del nom (en aquest cas Dehuai)Peng Dehuai (xinès simplificat: 彭德怀; xinès tradicional: 彭德懷 i en pinyin: Péng Déhuái). Líder comunista xinès que va néixer el 24 d'octubre del 1898 i va morir 29 de novembre del 1974. Ministre de Defensa. Marginat arran d'una crítica a Mao Zedong amb motiu dels errors comesos en el Gran Salt Endavant. Durant la Revolució Cultural va sofrir diverses represàlies.
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  • Peng Dehuai, ou Peng Te-huai (chinois traditionnel : 彭德懷 ; chinois simplifié : 彭德怀 ; pinyin : Péng Déhuái ; Wade-Giles : P'eng Te-huai), né le 24 octobre 1899, mort le 29 novembre 1974, était un militaire et homme politique chinois, cadre du Parti communiste chinois, puis responsable politique de la République populaire de Chine. Il fut l'un des chefs historiques de l'Armée populaire de libération.
  • 펑더화이(번체: 彭德懷, 간체: 彭德怀, 병음: Péng Déhuái, 팽덕회) (1898년 1월 24일 ~ 1974년 11월 29일) 은 중화인민공화국의 군인, 정치가이다. 중국 10대 원수 중의 한 사람이다.
  • 彭徳懐(ほう とくかい、ポン・ドーファイ、1898年10月24日 - 1974年11月29日)は中華人民共和国の軍人・政治家。中華人民共和国元帥。国務院副総理兼国防部長(大臣)、中国共産党中央政治局委員、中央軍事委員会副主席を務めたが、大躍進政策を批判したため失脚。最後は癌に侵されながらも治療を拒否されるなど、紅衛兵らによる虐待の中で死亡した。
  • Пэн Дэхуай (кит. упр. 彭德怀, пиньинь: Péng Déhuái; 24 октября 1898 — 29 ноября 1974) — государственный и военный деятель КНР, заместитель премьера Госсовета КНР и министр обороны КНР (1954—1959), маршал КНР (1955).Известен своей критикой Мао Цзэдуна и проводимой им политики «большого скачка».
  • Peng Dehuai (chinesisch 彭德懷 / 彭德怀, Pinyin Péng Déhuái, W.-G. P'eng Te-huai; eigentlich Peng Dehua; chin. 彭得华 Péng Déhuá, W.-G. P'eng Te-hua; * 24. Oktober 1898 in Xiangtan, Hunan; † 29. November 1974 in Peking) war einer der wichtigsten militärischen Führer der chinesischen Volksbefreiungsarmee sowie ab 1954 der erste Verteidigungsminister der Volksrepublik China. Peng Dehuai war der einzige führende Politiker, der offen Kritik an Mao Zedongs Großem Sprung nach vorn übte.
  • Advertiment: a Xina els cognoms van davant del nom (en aquest cas Dehuai)Peng Dehuai (xinès simplificat: 彭德怀; xinès tradicional: 彭德懷 i en pinyin: Péng Déhuái). Líder comunista xinès que va néixer el 24 d'octubre del 1898 i va morir 29 de novembre del 1974. Ministre de Defensa. Marginat arran d'una crítica a Mao Zedong amb motiu dels errors comesos en el Gran Salt Endavant. Durant la Revolució Cultural va sofrir diverses represàlies.
  • Peng Dehuai (chinês tradicional: 彭德怀, chinês simplificado: 彭德怀;) (24 de Outubro de 1898 - 29 de Novembro de 1974) foi um proeminente líder militar, ativista e líder do Partido Comunista da China e Ministro da Defesa da República Popular da China entre 1954 e 1959.
  • Peng Dehuai (chino tradicional: 彭德懷; chino simplificado: 彭德怀; ) (24 de octubre de 1898 - 29 de noviembre de 1974) fue un un líder militar chino, militante y dirigente del Partido Comunista de China y Ministro de Defensa en la República Popular China entre 1954 y 1959, que combatió a los japoneses en la Segunda Guerra Mundial y luego desempeñó mando de tropas en la Guerra de Corea.
  • Peng Dehuai ya da Ping Dihuai (Basitleştirilmiş Çince: 彭德怀; Geleneksel Çince: 彭德懷; pinyin: Péng Déhuái; Wade–Giles: P'eng Te-huai; d. 1898, Xiangtan, Hunan - ö. 29 Kasım 1974, Pekin, Çin), Çin Komünist Partisi'nin (ÇKP) önde gelen askeri liderlerinden. Çin İç Savaşı, Çin-Japon Savaşı ve Kore Savaşı'nda önemli komutanlık görevlerinde bulunmuş, 1954-1959 arasında Çin Halk Cumhuriyeti savunma bakanlığı yapmıştır.
  • Peng Dehuai (ur. 24 października 1898, zm. 29 listopada 1974) – chiński dowódca wojskowy i polityk komunistyczny, marszałek ChRL.Początkowo żołnierz Armii Kuomintangu, a po buncie przeciwko polityce Czang Kaj-szeka i wstąpieniu w 1928 roku do Komunistycznej Partii Chin Chińskiej Armii Ludowo-Wyzwoleńczej. Jeden z głównych dowódców sił komunistycznych podczas wojny z Japonią i wojny domowej z lat 1946-1950.Podczas wojny koreańskiej dowódca Chińskich Ochotników Ludowych.
  • Peng Dehuai (Peng Te-huai; simplified Chinese: 彭德怀; traditional Chinese: 彭德懷; pinyin: Péng Déhuái; Wade–Giles: P'eng2 Te2-huai2) (October 24, 1898 – November 29, 1974) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader, and served as China's Defense Minister from 1954 to 1959.
  • Peng Dehuai (txinera sinplifikatuaz: 彭德怀; tradizionalaz: 彭德懷; pinyinez: Péng Déhuái; Peng Te-Huai izenez ere ezaguna; Xiangtan, Hunango probintzia, 1898ko urriaren 24 - Beijing, 1974ko azaroaren 29) Txinako militarra eta politikaria izan zen. Txinatar soldadu borondatezkoen komandante izan zen Koreako Gerran 1950-1953 urteetan. 1954. urtean Txinako Defentsa-ministro eta mariskal izendatu zuten. Mao Tse-Tungek garai hartan bultzatutako politikaren aurka azaldu zen, eta postutik kendu zuten 1959.
  • Peng Dehuai (caratteri cinesi: 彭德懷; pinyin: Péng Déhuái; Xiangtan, 24 ottobre 1898 – Pechino, 29 novembre 1974) è stato un politico cinese. È stato anche un famoso leader militare nonché Capo dell'Esercito.La sua carriera militare iniziò negli anni Venti nelle file dell'esercito del Kuomintang unificato, nel quale divenne comandante di brigata; in quel periodo iniziò a legarsi con politici radicali.
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  • 彭徳懐
  • 펑더화이
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