La paléosismologie est l'étude des traces laissées dans les dépôts géologiques récents par d’anciens forts séismes. Elle a pour objectif d'identifier et de caractériser ces séismes et permet de compléter notre connaissance de la sismicité au-delà de la période "instrumentale" (dernier siècle) et "historique" (au mieux le dernier millénaire en France).

PropertyValue
dbpedia-owl:abstract
  • La paléosismologie est l'étude des traces laissées dans les dépôts géologiques récents par d’anciens forts séismes. Elle a pour objectif d'identifier et de caractériser ces séismes et permet de compléter notre connaissance de la sismicité au-delà de la période "instrumentale" (dernier siècle) et "historique" (au mieux le dernier millénaire en France). Cette discipline contribue ainsi aux évaluations d’aléa sismique (voir Sismologie qui prennent en compte la fréquence et la taille des tremblements de terre sur des périodes de plusieurs dizaines de milliers d’années. Ces séismes anciens sont appelés paléoséismes en complément des séismes historiques (connus par l'analyse des archives décrivant leurs effets) et des séismes instrumentaux (enregistrés par les réseaux de stations sismologiques depuis environ un siècle).À la surface du globe, l’expression des séismes est double : le mouvement vibratoire du sol, dû à la propagation des ondes sismiques générées par la rupture le long de la faille, qui provoque l’essentiel des dommages et victimes; l’émergence de la rupture jusqu'en surface, si le séisme est suffisamment important, ce qui peut modifier notablement le paysage.
  • Paläoseismologie bezeichnet ein Teilgebiet der Tektonik und Geodynamik, das die Aktivität geologisch junger Verwerfungen im Holozän und Pleistozän untersucht: Erdbeben verursachen in Abhängigkeit von der von ihnen freigesetzten Energie an Verwerfungen verschieden große Versätze, die geologisch überliefert sein können und deren geologische Belege (z. B. verfüllte Spalten, Ereignislagen in sedimentären Abfolgen) gegebenenfalls mittels geochronologischer Methoden datiert werden können.Auf diese Weise lässt sich in Ergänzung zu historischen Aufzeichnungen und zur gegenwärtigen seismologischen Überwachung die langfristige Versatzrate und die Erdbebencharakteristik einer Verwerfung über einen hinreichend langen Zeitraum dokumentieren, um Vorhersagen zum mutmaßlichen Wiederkehrsintervall großer Beben und/oder zur erwartenden Stärke großer Beben zu treffen. Paläoseismologische Analysen sind Teil der Gefährdungsabschätzung, die z. B. von Versicherungen in Bezug auf seismische Risiken getroffen werden.
  • Палеосеизмологията е наука, която се занимава изучаване на доисторически земетресения чрез геоложки изследвания, предназначени да определят мястото, времето и силата на тези събития. Палеосеизмоложките данни представляват директна информация за късно кватернерните тектонски събития. В резултат на това се предоставя възможността за определяне на повтаряемостта на силните сеизмични събития за конкретен съвременно активен разломен сегмент, както и да се правят дългосрочни прогнози.
  • La paleosismologia è la branca della sismologia che studia i grandi terremoti avvenuti nel passato attraverso le tracce che questi, o le faglie che li hanno generati, hanno lasciato sulla superficie della Terra. Essa è indispensabile nei paesi e luoghi privi di un valido catalogo storico dei terremoti ed è comunque necessaria per comprendere la pericolosità sismica di una regione ben al di là dei limiti imposti dall'intervallo temporale coperto dalle fonti storiche (1 000 - 3 000 anni, contro 10 000 - 40 000 anni della paleosismologia).
  • Paleoseismology looks at geologic sediments and rocks, for signs of ancient earthquakes. It is used to supplement seismic monitoring, for the calculation of seismic hazard. Paleoseismology is usually restricted to geologic regimes that have undergone continuous sediment creation for the last few thousand years, such as swamps, lakes, river beds and shorelines.In this typical example, a trench is dug in an active sedimentation regime. Evidence of thrust faulting can be seen in the walls of the trench. It becomes a matter of deducting the relative age of each fault, by cross-cutting patterns. The faults can be dated in absolute terms, if there is dateable carbon, or human artifacts.Many notable discoveries have been made using the techniques of paleoseismology. For example, there is a common misconception that having many smaller earthquakes can somehow 'relieve' a major fault such as the San Andreas, and reduce the chance of a major earthquake. It is now known (using paleoseismology) that nearly all the movement of the fault takes place with extremely large earthquakes. All of these seismic events (with a Moment Magnitude of over 8), leave some sort of trace in the sedimentation record.Another famous example involves the Megathrust earthquakes of the Pacific Northwest. It was thought for some time that there was low seismic hazard in region because relatively few modern earthquakes are being recorded. There was a concept that the subduction zone was merely sliding in a benign manner.All of these comforting notions were shattered by paleoseismology studies showing evidence of extremely large earthquakes, along with historical tsunami records. In effect, the subduction zone under British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and far northern California, is perfectly normal, being extremely hazardous in the long term, with the capability of generating coastal tsunamis of several hundred feet in height at the coast. These are caused by the interface between the subducted sea floor stressing the overlaying coastal soils in compression. Periodically a slip will occur which causes the coastal portion to reduce in elevation and thrust toward the west, leading to tsunamis in the central and eastern north Pacific ocean (with several hours of warning) and a reflux of water toward the coastal shore, with little time for residents to escape.
dbpedia-owl:thumbnail
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageExternalLink
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageID
  • 447238 (xsd:integer)
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageLength
  • 7425 (xsd:integer)
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageOutDegree
  • 9 (xsd:integer)
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageRevisionID
  • 96928467 (xsd:integer)
dbpedia-owl:wikiPageWikiLink
prop-fr:wikiPageUsesTemplate
dcterms:subject
rdfs:comment
  • La paléosismologie est l'étude des traces laissées dans les dépôts géologiques récents par d’anciens forts séismes. Elle a pour objectif d'identifier et de caractériser ces séismes et permet de compléter notre connaissance de la sismicité au-delà de la période "instrumentale" (dernier siècle) et "historique" (au mieux le dernier millénaire en France).
  • Палеосеизмологията е наука, която се занимава изучаване на доисторически земетресения чрез геоложки изследвания, предназначени да определят мястото, времето и силата на тези събития. Палеосеизмоложките данни представляват директна информация за късно кватернерните тектонски събития. В резултат на това се предоставя възможността за определяне на повтаряемостта на силните сеизмични събития за конкретен съвременно активен разломен сегмент, както и да се правят дългосрочни прогнози.
  • La paleosismologia è la branca della sismologia che studia i grandi terremoti avvenuti nel passato attraverso le tracce che questi, o le faglie che li hanno generati, hanno lasciato sulla superficie della Terra.
  • Paläoseismologie bezeichnet ein Teilgebiet der Tektonik und Geodynamik, das die Aktivität geologisch junger Verwerfungen im Holozän und Pleistozän untersucht: Erdbeben verursachen in Abhängigkeit von der von ihnen freigesetzten Energie an Verwerfungen verschieden große Versätze, die geologisch überliefert sein können und deren geologische Belege (z. B.
  • Paleoseismology looks at geologic sediments and rocks, for signs of ancient earthquakes. It is used to supplement seismic monitoring, for the calculation of seismic hazard. Paleoseismology is usually restricted to geologic regimes that have undergone continuous sediment creation for the last few thousand years, such as swamps, lakes, river beds and shorelines.In this typical example, a trench is dug in an active sedimentation regime.
rdfs:label
  • Paléosismologie
  • Paleoseismology
  • Paleosismologia
  • Paläoseismologie
  • Палеосеизмология
owl:sameAs
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom
foaf:depiction
foaf:isPrimaryTopicOf
is dbpedia-owl:wikiPageRedirects of
is dbpedia-owl:wikiPageWikiLink of
is foaf:primaryTopic of