L’ordre toscan originel est un ordre architectural contemporain de l'ordre dorique grec, plus épuré que lui. On le regarde comme originaire de l’ancienne Étrurie et les Romains l’employèrent avant de faire la conquête de la Grèce.

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  • L’ordre toscan originel est un ordre architectural contemporain de l'ordre dorique grec, plus épuré que lui. On le regarde comme originaire de l’ancienne Étrurie et les Romains l’employèrent avant de faire la conquête de la Grèce. Les monuments d’ordre toscan, à Rome, étaient donc anciens ; ils furent, depuis, ruinés par le temps ou rebâtis d’après les systèmes divers que la Grèce fit connaître aux architectes ; aussi n’a-t-il survécu jusqu’à nos jours aucun édifice entier construit d’après les règles de cet ordre.Vignole assigne à l’ordre toscan les proportions suivantes : entablement, 3 modules et 6 minutes ou 3 modules ½, dont 1 module 4 minutes pour la corniche, 1 module 2 minutes pour la frise et 1 module pour l’architrave ; colonnes, 14 modules, dont 12 pour le fût, 1 pour la base et 1 pour le chapiteau ; piédestal, 4 modules 8 minutes, dont 3 modules 8 minutes pour le dé, 6 minutes pour la base et 6 pour la corniche ; diminution de la base au sommet, 6 minutes ; entrecolonnement, 4 modules 8 minutes. Ce qui caractérise surtout l’ordre toscan, c’est l’absence de tout ornement.Les architectes de la Renaissance ont quelquefois fait usage de l’ordre toscan, mais avec des modifications : ils y ont ajouté différentes sortes de bossages, des vermiculations, des congélations, etc. C’est le toscan rustique du palais Pitti à Florence, dont le palais du Luxembourg, à Paris est une copie presque exacte.
  • Il Tuscanico o Toscano (dal latino tuscanĭcus con il significato di etrusco) è un ordine architettonico proprio dell'architettura romana e successivamente rinascimentale italiana.Fu descritto da Vitruvio, che gli attribuì un'origine etrusca e ne dà una descrizione sommaria, concedendogli poca considerazione. Non si può escludere sia un adattamento in terra italica dell'ordine dorico, di cui manteneva quasi tutte le caratteristiche più importanti, anche se generalmente abbandonava il fusto scanalato e l'echino era molto ridotto di spessore. Ancora al tempo di Vitruvio veniva utilizzato prevalentemente in costruzioni lignee.Nella codificazione rinascimentale degli ordini la distinzione dal dorico è spesso accademica e difficile da interpretare nelle realizzazioni architettoniche, per cui per la descrizione di uno stesso monumento gli studiosi utilizzano uno o l'altro dei termini.La sua supposta origine etrusca ne favorì il largo utilizzo nel Granducato di Toscana a partire da Cosimo I.Caratteristiche salienti:Base presente: il tipo propriamente tuscanico è costituito da un semplice toro, o modanatura con profilo a semicerchio convesso.Fusto come nell'ordine dorico, oppure liscio. Tuttavia molti dei fusti che oggi sembrano lisci avevano in realtà in origine un rivestimento in stucco che riproduceva le scanalature, oggi scomparso.Capitello tuscanico, più grosso rispetto all'ordine doricoL'abaco era più grande e l'echino più schiacciato ma più rigonfio rispetto all'ordine doricoArchitrave teoricamente come nell'ordine dorico.Fregio teoricamente come nell'ordine dorico.Cornice teoricamente come nell'ordine dorico.↑ ↑ ↑ ↑
  • Porządek toskański – jeden z klasycznych porządków w architekturze. Wykształcił się na terenie Italii z porządku doryckiego. Podstawowe różnice to: kolumny miały gładkie trzony (w porządku doryckim pokryte były żłobieniami) pod kolumnami wprowadzono bazy (w porządku doryckim kolumny stały bezpośrednio na stylobacie).Budowle wzniesione w stylu toskańskim sprawiały wrażenie bardziej przysadzistych niż budowle greckie. Wynikało to przede wszystkim z jakości (cech wytrzymałościowych) dostępnych materiałów. Budowle (przede wszystkim świątynie etruskie) wznoszone były na planie prostokąta, na podwyższeniu, na które prowadziły schody usytuowane przy krótszym boku. Budynek był otoczony kolumnadą z trzech stron. Dach dwuspadowy z okapem tworzył portyk z trzech stron budynku. Kolumny zakończone były głowicami złożonymi z echinusa i abakusa.
  • Among canon of classical orders of classical architecture, the Tuscan order's place is due to the influence of the Italian Sebastiano Serlio, who meticulously described the five orders including a "Tuscan order", "the solidest and least ornate", in his fourth book of Regole generalii di Architettura... sopra le cinque maniere degli edifici... (1537). Though Fra Giocondo had attempted a first illustration of a Tuscan capital in his printed edition of Vitruvius (1511), he showed the capital with an egg and dart enrichment that belonged to the Ionic order. The "most rustic" Tuscan order of Serlio was later carefully delineated by Andrea Palladio. From the perspective of these writers, the Tuscan order was an older primitive Italic architectural form, predating the Greek Doric and Ionic,[citation needed] associated by Serlio with the practice of rustication and the architectural practice of Tuscany. Giorgio Vasari made a valid argument for this claim by reference to il Cronaca's graduated rustication on the facade of Palazzo Strozzi, Florence. Like all architectural theory of the Renaissance, precedents for a Tuscan order were sought for in Vitruvius, who does not include it among the three canonic orders, but peripherally, in his discussion of the Etruscan temple (book iv, 7.2-3). Later Roman practice ignored the Tuscan order, and so did Leon Battista Alberti in De re aedificatoria (shortly before 1452).Following Serlio's interpretation of Vitruvius (who gives no indication of the column's capital), in the Tuscan order the column had a simpler base — circular rather than squared as in the other orders, where Vitruvius was being followed — and with a simple torus and collar, and the column was unfluted, while both capital and entablature were without adornments. the modular proportion of the column was 1:7 in Vitruvius, and in Palladio's illustration for Daniele Barbaro's commentary on Vitruvius), in Vignola's Cinque ordini d'architettura (1562), and in Palladio's Quattro libri (1570). Serlio alone gives a stockier proportion of 1:6. A plain astragal or taenia ringed the column beneath its plain cap.Palladio agreed in essence with Serlio: "The Tuscan, being rough, is rarely used above ground except in one-storey buildings like villa barns or in huge structures like Amphitheatres and the like which, having many orders, can take this one in place of the Doric, under the Ionic."[citation needed]but unlike the others could find Roman precedents, of which he named the arena of Verona and the Pula Arena, both of which, James Ackerman points out, are arcuated buildings that did not present columns and entablatures. A striking feature is his rusticated frieze resting upon a perfectly plain entablatureIn its simplicity, The Tuscan order is seen as similar to the Doric order, and yet in its overall proportions and intercolumniation, it follows the ratios of the Ionic order. This strong order was considered most appropriate in military architecture and in docks and warehouses when they were dignified by architectural treatment. Serlio found it "suitable to fortified places, such as city gates, fortresses, castles, treasuries, or where artillery and ammunition are kept, prisons, seaports and other similar structures used in war."Because the Tuscan mode is easily worked up by a carpenter with a few planing tools, it became part of the vernacular Georgian style that has lingered in places like New England and Ohio deep into the 19th century. In gardening, "carpenter's Doric" which is Tuscan, provides simple elegance to gate posts and fences in many traditional garden contexts.
  • De Toscaanse of Tuskische bouworde is ontstaan in de Romeinse architectuur en vormt een versimpelde versie van de Romeins-Dorische orde.
  • Toskanar ordena arkitektura ordena bat da, Vitruviok sailkatua eta, hortaz, arkitektura erromatarreko berezkoa. Hori dela eta, ez da arkitektura ordena klasiko greziarren artean aurkitzen (doriarra, joniarra eta korintiarra). Autore batzuen arabera, ordena klasikoetara etruriarrek egin zuten ekarpena izan zen. Doriarretik eratorria da, honen sinplifikazioa, eta Etrurian erabilia izan zen Greziaren konkista baino lehenago. Geroago, erromatarrek hartu eta hedatu zuten.Denboraren igaroan, Pizkundeko arkitektoek arte erromatarra greziarra baino askoz hobeto ezagutzen zutenez, toskanar ordena ere oso ohikoa izan zen XV. mendetik (doriar ordena baino are gehiago, ia erabat ezezaguna zena eta Neoklasizismoa arte berreskuratu ez zena).
  • Тоска́нский о́рдер — архитектурный ордер, возникший в Древнем Риме на рубеже I века до н. э. и I века н. э. Является упрощенным вариантом дорического ордера, от которого отличается гладким фризом и колонной без каннелюр.
  • A ordem toscana é desenvolvida na época romana e trata-se de uma simplificação de mesmas proporções do dórico. A coluna apresenta base circular, o fuste é liso, sem caneluras, e o capitel simples, com aneletes(toros). As colunas dessa ordem são separadas por grandes distâncias.== Referências ==
  • Die toskanische Ordnung (auch als Rustika, tuskische oder etruskische Ordnung bekannt) ist eine der fünf klassischen Säulenordnungen. In der Hierarchie der Säulenordnungen nimmt sie den untersten Platz ein.
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rdfs:comment
  • L’ordre toscan originel est un ordre architectural contemporain de l'ordre dorique grec, plus épuré que lui. On le regarde comme originaire de l’ancienne Étrurie et les Romains l’employèrent avant de faire la conquête de la Grèce.
  • De Toscaanse of Tuskische bouworde is ontstaan in de Romeinse architectuur en vormt een versimpelde versie van de Romeins-Dorische orde.
  • Тоска́нский о́рдер — архитектурный ордер, возникший в Древнем Риме на рубеже I века до н. э. и I века н. э. Является упрощенным вариантом дорического ордера, от которого отличается гладким фризом и колонной без каннелюр.
  • A ordem toscana é desenvolvida na época romana e trata-se de uma simplificação de mesmas proporções do dórico. A coluna apresenta base circular, o fuste é liso, sem caneluras, e o capitel simples, com aneletes(toros). As colunas dessa ordem são separadas por grandes distâncias.== Referências ==
  • Die toskanische Ordnung (auch als Rustika, tuskische oder etruskische Ordnung bekannt) ist eine der fünf klassischen Säulenordnungen. In der Hierarchie der Säulenordnungen nimmt sie den untersten Platz ein.
  • Toskanar ordena arkitektura ordena bat da, Vitruviok sailkatua eta, hortaz, arkitektura erromatarreko berezkoa. Hori dela eta, ez da arkitektura ordena klasiko greziarren artean aurkitzen (doriarra, joniarra eta korintiarra). Autore batzuen arabera, ordena klasikoetara etruriarrek egin zuten ekarpena izan zen. Doriarretik eratorria da, honen sinplifikazioa, eta Etrurian erabilia izan zen Greziaren konkista baino lehenago.
  • Il Tuscanico o Toscano (dal latino tuscanĭcus con il significato di etrusco) è un ordine architettonico proprio dell'architettura romana e successivamente rinascimentale italiana.Fu descritto da Vitruvio, che gli attribuì un'origine etrusca e ne dà una descrizione sommaria, concedendogli poca considerazione.
  • Among canon of classical orders of classical architecture, the Tuscan order's place is due to the influence of the Italian Sebastiano Serlio, who meticulously described the five orders including a "Tuscan order", "the solidest and least ornate", in his fourth book of Regole generalii di Architettura... sopra le cinque maniere degli edifici... (1537).
  • Porządek toskański – jeden z klasycznych porządków w architekturze. Wykształcił się na terenie Italii z porządku doryckiego. Podstawowe różnice to: kolumny miały gładkie trzony (w porządku doryckim pokryte były żłobieniami) pod kolumnami wprowadzono bazy (w porządku doryckim kolumny stały bezpośrednio na stylobacie).Budowle wzniesione w stylu toskańskim sprawiały wrażenie bardziej przysadzistych niż budowle greckie.
rdfs:label
  • Ordre toscan
  • Ordem toscana
  • Orden toscano
  • Ordine tuscanico
  • Ordre toscà
  • Porządek toskański
  • Toscaanse orde
  • Toskanar ordena
  • Toskanische Ordnung
  • Tuscan order
  • Тосканский ордер
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