Le massacre de la Ghouta est un bombardement à l'arme chimique au gaz sarin qui s'est produit le 21 août 2013 pendant la guerre civile syrienne et a frappé les banlieues orientale et occidentale de Damas en Syrie dans l'ancien oasis de la Ghouta tenue par l'Armée syrienne libre. L'attaque a fait entre 322 et 1 729 morts selon l'opposition et Médecins sans frontières, une grande partie des victimes étant des civils.

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dbpedia-owl:abstract
  • Le massacre de la Ghouta est un bombardement à l'arme chimique au gaz sarin qui s'est produit le 21 août 2013 pendant la guerre civile syrienne et a frappé les banlieues orientale et occidentale de Damas en Syrie dans l'ancien oasis de la Ghouta tenue par l'Armée syrienne libre. L'attaque a fait entre 322 et 1 729 morts selon l'opposition et Médecins sans frontières, une grande partie des victimes étant des civils. Le gouvernement syrien et l'opposition armée se rejettent mutuellement la responsabilité des bombardements. Les gouvernements américain, français, israélien, suédois, britannique, turc, canadien et la Ligue des États arabes condamnent le régime syrien. La Russie et l'Iran condamnent l'opposition. Le conseil de sécurité de l'ONU a déclaré vouloir faire la lumière sur ces accusations. Si le nombre de morts est confirmé, ce serait l'attaque chimique la plus meurtrière depuis le massacre de Halabja et la deuxième bataille d'al-Faw en 1988. La Syrie n'est pas signataire de la Convention sur l'interdiction des armes chimiques signée en 1993 et entrée en vigueur en 1997.
  • Die Giftgasangriffe von Ghuta vom 21. August 2013 sind eine Reihe von Giftgasangriffen, die im Verlauf des syrischen Bürgerkriegs in der Region Ghuta östlich von Damaskus stattgefunden haben. Eine UN-Untersuchung vor Ort wies den Einsatz des chemischen Kampfstoffs Sarin in hochkonzentrierter Form nach, der mittels Boden-Boden-Raketen verschossen wurde. Widersprüchlichen Angaben zufolge starben dabei 281, 355, 1429 oder 1.729 Menschen. Einige tausend Personen sollen mit neurotoxischen Reaktionen in die Krankenhäuser eingeliefert worden sein.
  • O ataque químico de Ghouta ocorreu em 21 de agosto de 2013 durante a Guerra Civil Síria, quando diversas áreas controladas ou disputadas pela oposição nos subúrbios de Ghouta em torno de Damasco, na Síria, foram atingidas por foguetes contendo o agente químico sarin. Centenas de pessoas foram mortas no ataque, que ocorreu durante um curto espaço de tempo no início da manhã. As estimativas do número de mortos variam de "pelo menos 281" até 1.729 vítimas mortais, não menos do que 51 dos quais eram combatentes rebeldes. Muitas testemunhas relataram que nenhuma das vítimas que viram apresentavam feridas físicas, e vídeos que pretendiam mostrar as vítimas do ataque químico foram amplamente divulgados no YouTube e outros sites. O episódio pode ser o uso mais letal de armas químicas desde a Guerra Irã-Iraque.O governo sírio e a oposição culpam-se mutuamente pelo ataque. Muitos governos, principalmente no mundo ocidental e árabe, afirmaram que o ataque foi realizado por forças do presidente sírio Bashar al-Assad, uma conclusão ecoada pela Liga Árabe e pela União Europeia. O governo russo classificou o ataque como uma operação de falsa bandeira da oposição para arrastar as potências estrangeiras para a guerra civil do lado dos rebeldes. Em abril de 2014, o jornalista Seymour Hersh alegou que os EUA e o Reino Unido teriam conhecimento que o ataque teria sido organizado pela Turquia.O ataque acendeu o debate na França, Reino Unido, Estados Unidos e outros países sobre a possibilidade de intervir militarmente contra as forças do governo. Em setembro de 2013, a governo sírio, apesar de não admitir a autoria do ataque, declarou a sua intenção de aderir à Convenção de Armas Químicas e destruir suas armas químicas.
  • Химическите атаки в Гута са поредица от химически атаки, извършени на 21 август 2013, в Гута, в Риф-дамаския мухафаз в Сирия.Сирийската опозиция и Лекари без граници говорят за между 322 и 1 729 смъртни случая, като никоя от жертвите няма повърхностни наранявания. Според Сирийската обсерватория за човешки права (SOHR), която дава най-ниската оценка за броя на жертвите (322 убити), 46 от мъртвите са бойци от бунтовническите сили. Атаките са извършени на територии, контролирани от опозицията, като опозицията обвинява сирийското правителство за атаките. Атаките засега не са потвърдени от независим източник. Сирийското правителство първоначално отрича твърденията за извършени химически атаки, но по-късно обвинява бунтовниците в извършването им. Официални и държавни представители от Съединените щати, Франция, Израел, Швеция, Обединеното кралство, Турция, Канада и Арабската лига заявяват, че зад атаките стои сирийското правителство. Официални и държавни представители на Русия и Иран заявяват, че атаките са извършени от бунтовниците. Ако броя жертви се потвърди, това означава, че става въпрос за най-смъртоносната химическа атака от тази през март-април 1988 в Халабджа, извършена от иракския режим над кюрдското население, и извършената по време на втората битка за Ал-Фао атака по време на Ирано-иракската война. Първоначално, сирийското правителство не допуска инспектори на ООН до засегнатите територии, въпреки че щабът на инспекторите е само на няколко километра от тях. На 25 август 2013, сирийското правителство се съгласява да допусне инспекторите до засегнатите територии. На 26 август 2013, инспектори се отправят към засегнатите райони, но снайперисти откриват огън по конвоя им. Те провеждат наблюдения в продължение на час и половина (вместо предвидените шест). Инспекторите се изтеглят, след като сирийските власти ги предупреждават, че не могат да гарантират сигурността им.В последствие няколко западни държави, включително САЩ, Великобритания, Германия и Франция, директно обвиняват правителството на Башар ал-Асад за разпореждане на атаката. Въпреки това, към 7 септември 2013 разузнавателните служби на САЩ не разполагат със сведения за връзка между кръга на Асад и химическата атака. Обвинението, че атаката е осъществена от правителството, се основава до голяма степен на свидетелски показания, неправителствени организации и видеоклипове от YouTube.
  • L'attacco chimico di Ghūṭa è un episodio occorso la mattina del 21 agosto 2013 durante la guerra civile siriana in cui alcune aree controllate dai ribelli nei sobborghi orientali e meridionali di Damasco, sono state colpite da missili superficie-superficie contenenti l'agente chimico sarin. Ribelli e governo siriano si accusano a vicenda di aver perpetrato l'attacco.Il numero complessivo di morti non è definito. Le stime variano da "almeno 281" a 1.729 morti. Se venissero confermate le cifre più alte, questo attacco chimico risulterebbe il più grave episodio verificatosi dall'attacco chimico di Halabja, durante la guerra Iran-Iraq.Le indagini svolte dalle Nazioni Unite dal 25 al 31 agosto 2013 rivelano chiare tracce di gas sarin nel terreno e sui cadaveri nelle zone colpite e accerta che la tipologia di gas è quello contenuto nei depositi siriani. Tuttavia non viene indicato chi possa essere il responsabile, essendo anche i ribelli nella possibilità di accedere ai depositi. L'attacco ha una forte ripercussione a livello internazionale. Infatti il presidente degli Stati Uniti, Barack Obama, nell'agosto 2012 aveva indicato come "linea rossa" per un possibile intervento armato contro la Siria proprio l'utilizzo di armi chimiche. La comunità internazionale si divide, con Stati Uniti, paesi membri della NATO, Unione Europea e Lega Araba che accusano il governo di Bashar al-Assad, mentre la Russia e l'Iran appoggiano il governo siriano, accreditando l'ipotesi di un attacco perpetrato dai ribelli.La netta opposizione russa ad un intervento militare internazionale in Siria impedisce una risoluzione ONU. Inoltre la forte opposizione dell'opinione pubblica e l'incertezza sulle conseguenze di un intervento militare frenano le nazioni più orientate all'attacco.Su iniziativa russa, la crisi internazionale si risolve con l'adesione della Siria alla Convenzione sulle armi chimiche e con la distruzione sotto egida ONU dell'arsenale chimico siriano.
  • Chemické útoky v Ghútě se odehrály 21. srpna 2013 v průběhu občanské války v Sýrii. Došlo k nim na východních předměstích Damašku, hlavního města Sýrie, v oblasti Ghúta v muháfaze Ríf Dimašq. Podle zjištění Organizace spojených národů bylo použito 350 litrů sarinu. Počet obětí dosáhl stovek, přičemž povstalecká Svobodná syrská armáda oznámila 1729 mrtvých a až 6000 zasažených, zatímco nezávislá organizace Lékaři bez hranic potvrdila k 24. srpnu zhruba 3600 ošetřených a jen 355 mrtvých. Jedná se o největší využití chemických zbraní od iráckého útoku v Haladžbě proti Kurdům v roce 1988.Podle povstalců chemické zbraně použila syrská armáda podporující režim Bašára al-Asada, vláda naopak viní z použití zbraní povstalce. Sýrie byla v době útoku jedním z pěti států, které nepodepsaly Úmluvu o chemických zbraních, respektive jedním ze sedmi, které ji neratifikovaly, a syrská vláda v roce 2012 přiznala, že chemické zbraně má. Přesvědčení, že chemické útoky má na svědomí vládnoucí režim, vyjádřily ústy svých představitelů mimo jiné Spojené státy americké, Francie a Spojené království, a zároveň začaly plánovat nějakou formu vojenského zásahu.Naopak Rusko a Írán, které se v konfliktu staví dlouhodobě na stranu Asadova režimu, vyjádřily přesvědčení, že za útoky stojí povstalci, a Čínská lidová republika zaujala zdrženlivý postoj. Vzhledem k tomu, že stálí členové Rady bezpečnosti OSN Čína a Rusko se nechystali podpořit odvetný vojenský zásah proti Asadovu režimu, byla západními spojenci v reakci na útoky zvažována možnost zasáhnout bez mandátu Organizace spojených národů podobně jako Severoatlantická aliance zasáhla v roce 1999 v Kosovu.
  • El ataque químico de Guta (a veces llamado masacre de Guta) aconteció el 21 de agosto de 2013 en dicho suburbio de Damasco, durante la Guerra Civil Siria. La ofensiva cobró la vida de más de 1.400 personas y dejó a otras 3.000 heridas, siendo la peor matanza humana del año 2013 y el peor ataque químico en los últimos 25 años. La autoría del ataque es objeto de intensa controversia a nivel internacional entre aliados y oponentes de ambos bandos, con gobiernos occidentales aduciendo la necesidad de intervenir militarmente en el país para castigar al gobierno sirio al que acusan de perpetrar la matanza.La gravedad del hecho, tomando en cuenta el uso de armas químicas, ha causado un impacto mundial que ha llevado a gran parte de la comunidad internacional a actuar. Potencias como Estados Unidos y Francia han anunciado su intención de intervenir militarmente en contra de Siria, mientras que otros como Inglaterra y Alemania no actuarán pero sí los han apoyado logísticamente. Por otro lado, los aliados del gobierno sirio, Irán y Rusia, niegan que el Estado haya tenido algo que ver con el ataque y acusan a Occidente de urdir un complot contra su aliado. La mayoría del mundo, en tanto, no apoya una intervención, pero sí condena la ofensiva química.
  • Atak gazowy w Ghucie – atak rakietowy z wykorzystaniem broni chemicznej przeprowadzony 21 sierpnia 2013 w Ghucie, czyli na terenach rolniczych położonych na wschód od Damaszku zamieszkanych przez sunnitów, podczas wojny domowej w Syrii. Według szacunków opozycji w ataku gazowym zginęło od 355 do 1821 osób.
  • The Ghouta chemical attack occurred on 21 August 2013 during the Syrian civil war, when several opposition-controlled or disputed areas of the Ghouta suburbs of the Markaz Rif Dimashq district around Damascus, Syria, were struck by rockets containing the chemical agent sarin. Hundreds were killed in the attack, which took place over a short span of time in the early morning. Estimates of the death toll range from 'at least 281' to 1,729 fatalities, not less than 51 of whom were rebel fighters. The incident may be the deadliest use of chemical weapons since the Iran–Iraq War.The United Nations investigated several attack sites, which were mere kilometres from the temporary quarters of UN inspectors who had arrived at the Syrian government's invitation to look into alleged chemical weapons use prior to the Ghouta attack. The UN requested access to sites in Ghouta the day after the attack. Syrian government forces continued to bomb the area on 22 August. On 23 August, government and rebel forces clashed in Ghouta, the Syrian military continued to shell Ghouta, and the UN called for a ceasefire to allow inspectors to visit the Ghouta sites. The Syrian government granted the UN's request on 25 August. Inspectors worked from 26 to 31 August investigating sites of the attack.The UN investigation team reported that it had confirmed the use of sarin in the Ghouta attack. The Mission "collected clear and convincing evidence that surface-to-surface rockets containing the nerve agent sarin were used in the Ein Tarma, Moadamiyah and Zalmalka in the Ghouta area of Damascus." The report's lead author, Åke Sellström, said that the quality of the sarin used in the attack was higher than that used by Iraq in the Iran-Iraq war, implying a purity higher than the Iraqi chemical weapons program's low purity of 45–60%. A U.N. report of 2014 found that 'the evidence available concerning the nature, quality and quantity of the agents used on 21 August indicated that the perpetrators likely had access to the chemical weapons stockpile of the Syrian military, as well as the expertise and equipment necessary' and that the chemical agents used in the Khan al-Assal chemical attack 'bore the same unique hallmarks' as those used in Al-Ghouta attack. However, in none of the incidents was the commission’s 'evidentiary threshold met with regard to the perpetrator'.The Syrian government and opposition blamed each other for the attack. Many governments, including in the Western and Arab worlds, said the attack was carried out by forces of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, a conclusion echoed by the Arab League and the European Union. The Russian government called the attack a false flag operation by the opposition to draw foreign powers into the civil war on the rebels' side. Sellstrom has characterised attempts to say the rebels were responsible as unconvincing, resting in part upon 'poor theories'. Sellstrom confirmed that hexamine, of which the Assad government admitted to having 80 tonnes, and which appeared on the OPCW list of November 2013, was, 'in their formula, it is their acid scavenger.' The attack sparked debate in France, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other countries about whether to intervene militarily against government forces.In September 2013, the Syrian government, while not admitting responsibility for the attack, declared its intention to join the Chemical Weapons Convention and destroy its chemical weapons. In April 2014 OPCW confirmed that Syria had missed the agreed deadline but destroyed 92.5% of its declared arsenal. Nevertheless, British officials have said that there is strong evidence that Syria is using chlorine as a weapon and has held back rockets capable of carrying a chemical warhead of a type used in the Ghouta attack. France has concurred that the Syrian government has not only failed to meet deadlines and left stockpiles undeclared, but has also continued to use chemical weapons.
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  • Le massacre de la Ghouta est un bombardement à l'arme chimique au gaz sarin qui s'est produit le 21 août 2013 pendant la guerre civile syrienne et a frappé les banlieues orientale et occidentale de Damas en Syrie dans l'ancien oasis de la Ghouta tenue par l'Armée syrienne libre. L'attaque a fait entre 322 et 1 729 morts selon l'opposition et Médecins sans frontières, une grande partie des victimes étant des civils.
  • Atak gazowy w Ghucie – atak rakietowy z wykorzystaniem broni chemicznej przeprowadzony 21 sierpnia 2013 w Ghucie, czyli na terenach rolniczych położonych na wschód od Damaszku zamieszkanych przez sunnitów, podczas wojny domowej w Syrii. Według szacunków opozycji w ataku gazowym zginęło od 355 do 1821 osób.
  • L'attacco chimico di Ghūṭa è un episodio occorso la mattina del 21 agosto 2013 durante la guerra civile siriana in cui alcune aree controllate dai ribelli nei sobborghi orientali e meridionali di Damasco, sono state colpite da missili superficie-superficie contenenti l'agente chimico sarin. Ribelli e governo siriano si accusano a vicenda di aver perpetrato l'attacco.Il numero complessivo di morti non è definito. Le stime variano da "almeno 281" a 1.729 morti.
  • El ataque químico de Guta (a veces llamado masacre de Guta) aconteció el 21 de agosto de 2013 en dicho suburbio de Damasco, durante la Guerra Civil Siria. La ofensiva cobró la vida de más de 1.400 personas y dejó a otras 3.000 heridas, siendo la peor matanza humana del año 2013 y el peor ataque químico en los últimos 25 años.
  • Химическите атаки в Гута са поредица от химически атаки, извършени на 21 август 2013, в Гута, в Риф-дамаския мухафаз в Сирия.Сирийската опозиция и Лекари без граници говорят за между 322 и 1 729 смъртни случая, като никоя от жертвите няма повърхностни наранявания. Според Сирийската обсерватория за човешки права (SOHR), която дава най-ниската оценка за броя на жертвите (322 убити), 46 от мъртвите са бойци от бунтовническите сили.
  • Die Giftgasangriffe von Ghuta vom 21. August 2013 sind eine Reihe von Giftgasangriffen, die im Verlauf des syrischen Bürgerkriegs in der Region Ghuta östlich von Damaskus stattgefunden haben. Eine UN-Untersuchung vor Ort wies den Einsatz des chemischen Kampfstoffs Sarin in hochkonzentrierter Form nach, der mittels Boden-Boden-Raketen verschossen wurde. Widersprüchlichen Angaben zufolge starben dabei 281, 355, 1429 oder 1.729 Menschen.
  • Chemické útoky v Ghútě se odehrály 21. srpna 2013 v průběhu občanské války v Sýrii. Došlo k nim na východních předměstích Damašku, hlavního města Sýrie, v oblasti Ghúta v muháfaze Ríf Dimašq. Podle zjištění Organizace spojených národů bylo použito 350 litrů sarinu. Počet obětí dosáhl stovek, přičemž povstalecká Svobodná syrská armáda oznámila 1729 mrtvých a až 6000 zasažených, zatímco nezávislá organizace Lékaři bez hranic potvrdila k 24. srpnu zhruba 3600 ošetřených a jen 355 mrtvých.
  • O ataque químico de Ghouta ocorreu em 21 de agosto de 2013 durante a Guerra Civil Síria, quando diversas áreas controladas ou disputadas pela oposição nos subúrbios de Ghouta em torno de Damasco, na Síria, foram atingidas por foguetes contendo o agente químico sarin. Centenas de pessoas foram mortas no ataque, que ocorreu durante um curto espaço de tempo no início da manhã.
  • The Ghouta chemical attack occurred on 21 August 2013 during the Syrian civil war, when several opposition-controlled or disputed areas of the Ghouta suburbs of the Markaz Rif Dimashq district around Damascus, Syria, were struck by rockets containing the chemical agent sarin. Hundreds were killed in the attack, which took place over a short span of time in the early morning. Estimates of the death toll range from 'at least 281' to 1,729 fatalities, not less than 51 of whom were rebel fighters.
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  • Massacre de la Ghouta
  • Atak gazowy w Ghucie
  • Ataque químico de Ghouta
  • Ataque químico de Guta
  • Attacco chimico di Ghūṭa
  • Chemické útoky v Ghútě
  • Ghouta chemical attack
  • Giftgasangriffe von Ghuta
  • Химически атаки в Гута
  • Химические атаки в Гуте
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