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dbpedia-owl:abstract
  • Le titre de maréchal d’Empire est une dignité du Premier Empire.
  • Maresciallo dell'Impero è una qualifica introdotta in Francia da Napoleone Bonaparte.Filippo Augusto aveva introdotto il titolo di Maresciallo di Francia nel 1185. Dopo più di sei secoli, il 21 febbraio 1793 la Repubblica aboliva il titolo. Il 19 maggio 1804, il giorno seguente la sua proclamazione ad Imperatore, Napoleone Bonaparte riattribuiva la qualifica nominando 18 Marescialli dell'Impero. Quattordici erano suoi vecchi compagni d'arme, a questi vengono aggiunti quattro marescialli onorari: Kellermann, Lefebvre, Pérignon e Sérurier. La lista dei marescialli aumenta nel 1807 con Victor, nel 1809 con Macdonald, Marmont e Oudinot, nel 1811 con Suchet, nel 1812 Gouvion Saint-Cyr, nel 1813 Poniatowski e nel 1815 Grouchy.
  • Az Első Francia Császárság idején I. Napóleon 26 császári marsallt nevezett ki.
  • Marshal of the Empire (Fr. Maréchal d'Empire) was a civil dignity during the First French Empire. It was created by Sénatus-consulte on 18 May 1804 and to a large extent resurrected the formerly abolished title of Marshal of France. According to the Sénatus-consulte, a Marshal was a grand officer of the Empire, entitled to a high-standing position at the Court and to the presidency of an electoral college.Although in theory reserved "to the most distinguished generals", in practice Emperor Napoleon I granted the title according to his own wishes and convictions and made at least a few controversial choices. Although not a military rank, a Marshal displayed four silver stars, while the top military rank, General of Division, displayed three stars. Furthermore, the Marshalate quickly became the prestigious sign of the supreme military attainment and it became customary that the most significant commands be given to a Marshal. Each Marshal held his own coat of arms, was entitled to special honours and several of them held top functions within the army. They wore distinctive uniforms and were entitled to carry a cylinder-shaped baton, which was a symbol of their authority.Throughout his 1804-1815 reign, Napoleon appointed a total of 26 Marshals, although their number never exceeded 20 at any one moment. The initial list of 1804 included 14 names of active generals and four names of retired generals, who were given the "honorary" title of Marshal. Six other promotions ensued, with eight other generals elevated to the Marshalate. The title often ensured a highly privileged social status - four Marshals were created Counts of the Empire and 17 received either the title of Duke or Prince. With two exceptions - Jean-Baptiste Bessières and Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier - the Marshals led a sumptuous lifestyle and left behind significant, at times immense, fortunes. Several of them received significant annuities; in addition, a few received financial endowments from the Emperor, with two of them - Louis-Alexandre Berthier and André Masséna - receiving more than one million Francs each. Two Marshals - Joachim Murat and Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte - went on to become Kings, with the latter being the direct ancestor of the current Swedish Royal Family.Most of the Marshals held significant commands during the Napoleonic Wars, winning some of the most brilliant victories of the entire Napoleonic Wars. Three of them - Jean Lannes, Louis-Nicolas Davout and Louis-Gabriel Suchet were virtually never defeated in pitched battle, despite fighting in dozens of engagements. While they were not normally expected to lead from the front, they often exposed themselves to great dangers on the battlefields of Europe; three Marshals - Jean Lannes, Jean-Baptiste Bessières and Józef Poniatowski - were killed in action or died as a result of battle wounds. During his five years as a Marshal of the Empire (1809–1814), Nicolas-Charles Oudinot received seven of a total of 27 battle wounds suffered throughout his career, but went on to live to the then venerable age of 80. Often formidable when serving under the direct command of Napoleon, the Marshals proved to be less effective when having to cooperate, in the Emperor's absence. Some repeatedly acted in ill-faith when placed under the command of another Marshal, with conflicts sometimes leading to fatal military consequences. After Napoleon's downfall, most of them swore allegiance to the Bourbon Restoration and several went on to hold significant commands and positions. The boulevards of the marshals in Paris are a collection of thoroughfares that encircle the city near its outermost margins. Most bear the name of marshals who served under Napoleon I.
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  • Category:Marshals of the First French Empire
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  • Les maréchaux du Premier Empire
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rdfs:comment
  • Le titre de maréchal d’Empire est une dignité du Premier Empire.
  • Az Első Francia Császárság idején I. Napóleon 26 császári marsallt nevezett ki.
  • Marshal of the Empire (Fr. Maréchal d'Empire) was a civil dignity during the First French Empire. It was created by Sénatus-consulte on 18 May 1804 and to a large extent resurrected the formerly abolished title of Marshal of France.
  • Maresciallo dell'Impero è una qualifica introdotta in Francia da Napoleone Bonaparte.Filippo Augusto aveva introdotto il titolo di Maresciallo di Francia nel 1185. Dopo più di sei secoli, il 21 febbraio 1793 la Repubblica aboliva il titolo. Il 19 maggio 1804, il giorno seguente la sua proclamazione ad Imperatore, Napoleone Bonaparte riattribuiva la qualifica nominando 18 Marescialli dell'Impero.
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  • Maréchal d'Empire
  • A Francia Császárság marsalljainak listája
  • Maresciallo dell'Impero
  • Marshal of the Empire
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