Marie de Vichy-Chamrond (ou Champrond), marquise du Deffand, née le 25 septembre 1697 au Château de Chamrond, en Bourgogne et morte le 23 août 1780 à Paris, est une épistolière et salonnière française.

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  • Marie de Vichy-Chamrond (ou Champrond), marquise du Deffand, née le 25 septembre 1697 au Château de Chamrond, en Bourgogne et morte le 23 août 1780 à Paris, est une épistolière et salonnière française.
  • Marie Anne de Vichy-Chamrond (Borgogna, 25 settembre 1697 – Parigi, 23 agosto 1780) è stata una scrittrice di epistole francese, figura eminente dei salotti mondani dell'epoca.Nata da una famiglia nobile ma povera, è stata cresciuta a Parigi in un convento benedettino. Nel 1718 viene data in sposa al Marchese du Deffand, il quale era molto più anziano di lei. Si vide presto circondata da ammiratori ed era famosa per la sua rara bellezza ed il suo elegante spirito. Condusse una vita molto libertina nel periodo della Régence.Viene presentata dal suo amante nonché amico della Regina Charles-Jean-François Hénault alla Corte di Sceaux presso la Duchessa del Maine. In quel mondo libertino conosce Voltaire il quale sarà suo amico per tutta la vita. Dal 1742 inizia una corrispondenza con delle figure eminenti del secolo: Voltaire, D'Alembert, sua nipote Julie de Lespinasse, Horace Walpole e altre figure significative. La sua Correspondance si rivelò un buon esempio di letteratura classica, per lo spirito raffinato ma anche spontaneo, per l'effusione di sentimenti e di rivelazioni dell'Io romantico, per i precisi e profondi ritratti psicologici.Dopo la morte di suo marito si stabilì in una residenza vicino ad un convento parigino. Nel 1749 apre il suo salone famoso per esser tappezzato da bottoni d'oro. Dotata di una grande intelligenza e del dono della conversazione, il suo salone attirò soprattutto intellettuali. A 56 anni diviene quasi cieca: in quel momento decide di prendere sua nipote Julie de Lespinasse come sua lettrice. Le due, prima grandi amiche, divennero nemiche agguerrite per via di ragioni amorose riguardanti Julie e altri ospiti del salone. Il loro rapporto terminò bruscamente.Oltre gli ospiti abituali quali Voltaire e D'Alembert, altri importanti avventori sono stati Fontenelle, Marivaux, Sedaine, Helvétius, i pittori Van Loo e Vernet, e molti altri.
  • Marie-Anne de Vichy-Chamrond (1697, Castell de Chamrond, departament de Saona i Loira – [23 de setembre] de 1780, París), marquesa du Deffand. Es casa amb Jean Baptiste de la Lande, el marquès de Deffand, molt més gran que ella. El seu caràcter poc respectuós cap el marit i amb les tradicions familiars va fer que aviat acabés vivint en un altre lloc. La seva personalitat i els contactes amb el president Hénault li van permetre mantenir un saló que es va fer un camí per acollir un públic literari i filosòfic. Entre els personatges que van assistir a les tertúlies hi ha D'Alembert, Montesquieu, Marivaux, Turgot i Concordet. Va mantenir una rivalitat amb Mme. Geoffrin i Mme. De Lespinasse, qui Marie-Anne va introduir en aquest món de tertúlies amb personalitats intel·lectuals i que la gelosia va trencar una amistat de deu anys. La seva postura davant de l'Enciclopèdia cada cop es va fer més opositora. Va intuir la Revolució francesa. De Marie-Anne cal destacar Les cartes, publicades a la primera meitat del s. XIV, a on hi ha tres col·leccions. Una d'elles és un intercanvi de sentiments i amistat intel·lectual amb l'anglès Horaci Walpole, vint anys més jove, que va durar quinze anys.
  • Marie de Vichy-Chamrond (ou Champrond), marquise du Deffand (* 25. September 1697 auf Schloss Chamrond bei Charolles; † 23. August 1780 in Paris), bekannt als Marquise du Deffand war eine französische Salonière im Zeitalter der Aufklärung.
  • Marie de Vichy-Chamrond, marquesa du Deffand (25 de septiembre de 1697 – 23 de agosto de 1780), fue una mujer de letras y epistológrafa francesa cuyo salón fue uno de los principales lugares de encuentro de los enciclopedistasNació en el château de Chamrond, en el seno de un familia borgoñona, noble pero poco adinerada, y fue educada en un convento benedictino de París. A los 22 años se convierte por matrimonio en marquesa du Deffand, aunque nunca llegó a querer a su marido y lo acabaría abandonando para poder disfrutar de una vida más libre.Famosa por su belleza, su espíritu audaz y su carácter benévolo, pronto se vio rodeada de aduladores y comenzó a llevar una vida disoluta repleta de aventuras amorosas. Relacionada con Voltaire y con Charles-Jean-François Hénault, fue una figura distinguida en la fastuosa sociedad francesa de la Régence.A partir de 1742 comienza una prolija correspondencia con diversas personalidades del mundo de las artes y de las letras: Horace Walpole, d’Alembert, Julie de Lespinasse, la duquesa de Luynes y muchos otros. Rumores, comidillas de la corte y retratos de personajes célebres alimentaron sus epístolas, escritas con un espléndido estilo, vivo, mordaz y picante, tal y como eran las conversaciones de salón de su época, que fue, entre todas, la época de la conversación elevada a la categoría de arte. Sainte-Beuve escribió sobre ella: «Mme du Deffand es junto con Voltaire, en la prosa, el estilo clásico más puro de esta época, sin exceptuar a ninguno de los grandes escritores.»En 1747 se instala en las estancias anteriormente ocupadas por la que fuera favorita de Luis XIV, Madame de Montespan, en la calle parisina de Saint-Dominique, en el antiguo convento de las Hijas de Saint-Joseph. Allí abre, a partir de 1749, su célebre salón. Aunque hay tertulias todos los días, son las del lunes las que atraen a toda la elite intelectual, entre la que la inteligencia y las dotes de conversación de Madame du Deffand ejercieron una verdadera fascinación.A los 56 años comienza a sufrir problemas en la vista (que acabarían por dejarla completamente ciega a los 70 años) por lo que elige a su sobrina Julie de Lespinasse como lectora para suplir sus carencias. Posteriormente se separarían de forma brusca.Amiga de Voltaire, de d’Alembert, de Fontenelle, de Marivaux, de Sedaine, de Helvétius, del arquitecto Soufflot, del escultor Falconet, de los pintores Van Loo y Vernet, su salón atrajo a los mayores intelectuales y artistas de la época.Falleció el 23 de agosto de 1780 en París, dejándonos un importantísimo legado en forma de correspondencia, representativa del espíritu de la Ilustración francesa.
  • Marie Anne de Vichy-Chamrond, marquise du Deffand (1697 – 23 September 1780) was a French hostess and patron of the arts.She was born at the Château de Chamrond, in Ligny-en-Brionnais, a village near Charolles (département of Saône-et-Loire) of a noble family. Educated at a convent in Paris, she showed great intelligence and a sceptical, cynical turn of mind. The abbess, alarmed at the freedom of her views, arranged for Jean Baptiste Massillon to visit and reason with her, but he accomplished nothing. Her parents married her at twenty-one years of age to her kinsman, Jean Baptiste de la Lande, marquis du Deffand, without consulting her inclination. The marriage was an unhappy one, and the couple separated in 1722.Madame du Deffand is said by Horace Walpole (in a letter to Thomas Gray) to have been for a short time the mistress of the regent, the duke of Orléans. She appeared in her earlier days to be incapable of any strong attachment, but her intelligence, her cynicism and her esprit made her the centre of attraction of a brilliant circle. In 1721 began a friendship with Voltaire, but their regular correspondence dates only from 1736. She spent much time at Sceaux, at the court of the duchesse du Maine, where she contracted a close friendship with the president Hénault. In Paris she joined the Club de l'Entresol and was the rival of Mme Geoffrin, but the members of her salon were drawn from aristocratic society more than from literary circles. There were exceptions: Voltaire, Montesquieu, Fontenelle and Madame de Staal-Delaunay were among the habitués. When Hénault introduced D'Alembert, Madame du Deffand was captivated by him. She tolerated the encyclopaedists only for his sake.In 1752 she retired from Paris, intending to remain in the country, but she was persuaded by her friends to return. She had taken up residence in 1747 in apartments in the convent of Saint-Joseph in the rue Saint-Dominique, which had a separate entrance from the street. When she lost her sight in 1754, she engaged Mademoiselle de Lespinasse to help her in entertaining. This lady's wit made some of the guests, including D'Alembert, prefer her society to that of Madame du Deffand, and Mademoiselle de Lespinasse received visitors for an hour before her patron appeared. When this was discovered, Mademoiselle de Lespinasse was dismissed (1764), and the salon broke up, for she took with her D'Alembert, Turgot and the literary clique. From this time Madame du Deffand very rarely received any literary men. The principal friendships of her later years were with the duchesse de Choiseul and with Horace Walpole, the latter becoming the strongest and longest-lasting of all her attachments. In this period, she developed qualities of style and eloquence of which her earlier writings had given little promise. In the opinion of Sainte-Beuve the prose of her letters ranks with that of Voltaire as the best of that classical epoch without excepting any even of the great writers.Walpole refused at first to acknowledge the closeness of their intimacy from an exaggerated fear of the ridicule attaching to her age, but he paid several visits to Paris expressly for the purpose of enjoying her society, and maintained a close and most interesting correspondence with her for fifteen years. On her death, she left her dog Tonton to the care of Walpole, who was also entrusted with her papers. Of her innumerable witty sayings the best known is her remark on the cardinal de Polignac's account of St Denis's miraculous walk of two miles with his head in his hands--Il n'y a que le premier pas qui coûte (The distance doesn't matter; it is only the first step that is the most difficult.).The Correspondance inédite of Madame du Deffand with D'Alembert, Hénault, Montesquieu, and others was published in Paris (2 vols.) in 1809. Letters of the marquise du Deffand to the Hon. Horace Walpole, afterwards earl of Orford, from the year 1766 to the year 1780 (4vols.), edited, with a biographical sketch, by Miss Mary Berry, were published in London from the originals at Strawberry Hill in 1810.The standard edition of her letters is in the Yale Edition of Horace Walpole's Correspondence vols. 9-10, edited by Wilmarth S. Lewis. Other papers of Mme du Deffand obtained at the breaking up of Walpole's collection are in private hands. Mme du Deffand returned many of Walpole's letters at his request, and subsequently destroyed those she received from him. Those in his possession appear to have been destroyed after his death by Miss Berry, who printed fragments from them as footnotes to the edition of 1810. The correspondence between Walpole and Madame du Deffand thus remains one-sided, but seven of Walpole's letters to her are printed for the first time in the edition (1903) of his correspondence by Mrs Paget Toynbee, who discovered a quantity of her unedited letters. See Sainte-Beuve, Causeries du lundi, vols. i. and xiv.; and the notice by Lescure in his edition of the correspondence.
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  • Marie de Vichy-Chamrond (ou Champrond), marquise du Deffand, née le 25 septembre 1697 au Château de Chamrond, en Bourgogne et morte le 23 août 1780 à Paris, est une épistolière et salonnière française.
  • Marie de Vichy-Chamrond (ou Champrond), marquise du Deffand (* 25. September 1697 auf Schloss Chamrond bei Charolles; † 23. August 1780 in Paris), bekannt als Marquise du Deffand war eine französische Salonière im Zeitalter der Aufklärung.
  • Marie Anne de Vichy-Chamrond (Borgogna, 25 settembre 1697 – Parigi, 23 agosto 1780) è stata una scrittrice di epistole francese, figura eminente dei salotti mondani dell'epoca.Nata da una famiglia nobile ma povera, è stata cresciuta a Parigi in un convento benedettino. Nel 1718 viene data in sposa al Marchese du Deffand, il quale era molto più anziano di lei. Si vide presto circondata da ammiratori ed era famosa per la sua rara bellezza ed il suo elegante spirito.
  • Marie de Vichy-Chamrond, marquesa du Deffand (25 de septiembre de 1697 – 23 de agosto de 1780), fue una mujer de letras y epistológrafa francesa cuyo salón fue uno de los principales lugares de encuentro de los enciclopedistasNació en el château de Chamrond, en el seno de un familia borgoñona, noble pero poco adinerada, y fue educada en un convento benedictino de París.
  • Marie-Anne de Vichy-Chamrond (1697, Castell de Chamrond, departament de Saona i Loira – [23 de setembre] de 1780, París), marquesa du Deffand. Es casa amb Jean Baptiste de la Lande, el marquès de Deffand, molt més gran que ella. El seu caràcter poc respectuós cap el marit i amb les tradicions familiars va fer que aviat acabés vivint en un altre lloc.
  • Marie Anne de Vichy-Chamrond, marquise du Deffand (1697 – 23 September 1780) was a French hostess and patron of the arts.She was born at the Château de Chamrond, in Ligny-en-Brionnais, a village near Charolles (département of Saône-et-Loire) of a noble family. Educated at a convent in Paris, she showed great intelligence and a sceptical, cynical turn of mind.
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  • Madame du Deffand
  • Marie Anne de Vichy-Chamrond
  • Marie Anne de Vichy-Chamrond, marquise du Deffand
  • Marie de Vichy Chamrond
  • Marie-Anne de Vichy-Chamrond
  • Дюдеффан, Мари
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