Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner était un philosophe et naturaliste allemand, né à Darmstadt le 29 mars 1824, mort dans cette même ville le 1er mai 1899.Il était le troisième fils de Louise Caroline Reuss (1791-1858) et d'Ernst Büchner (1786-1861), ancien médecin militaire dans l'armée napoléonienne, médecin à Goddelau puis chimiste industriel renommé, inventeur d'outils scientifiques comme l'entonnoir Büchner.

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  • Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner était un philosophe et naturaliste allemand, né à Darmstadt le 29 mars 1824, mort dans cette même ville le 1er mai 1899.Il était le troisième fils de Louise Caroline Reuss (1791-1858) et d'Ernst Büchner (1786-1861), ancien médecin militaire dans l'armée napoléonienne, médecin à Goddelau puis chimiste industriel renommé, inventeur d'outils scientifiques comme l'entonnoir Büchner. Ceux-ci élevèrent et éduquèrent leurs six enfants dans un monde de sciences, de culture et d'art: Georg Büchner (1813-1837), médecin, poète, écrivain, révolutionnaire et scientifique Mathilde Büchner (1815-1888); Wilhelm Ludwig Büchner (1817-1892), homme politique; Luise Büchner (1821-1877), écrivain et féministe; Ludwig Büchner (1824-1899), médecin dont les travaux philosophiques marqueront l'histoire du matérialisme de ce siècle; Alexander Büchner (1827-1904), écrivain et professeur de littérature.
  • Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner (29 March 1824 – 1 May 1899) was a German philosopher, physiologist and physician who became one of the exponents of 19th century scientific materialism. Büchner was born at Darmstadt on 29 March 1824. From 1842 to 1848 he studied physics, chemistry, botany, mineralogy, philosophy and medicine at the University of Giessen, where he graduated in 1848 with a dissertation entitled Beiträge zur Hall'schen Lehre von einem excitomotorischen Nervensystem (Contributions to the Hallerian Theory of an Excitomotor Nervous System). Afterwards, he continued his studies at the University of Strasbourg, University of Würzburg (where he studied pathology with the great Rudolf Virchow) and at the University of Vienna. In 1852 he became lecturer in medicine at the University of Tübingen, where he published his great work Kraft und Stoff: Empirisch-naturphilosophische Studien (Force and Matter: Empiricophilosophical Studies, 1855). In this work, the product, according to Lange, of a fanatical enthusiasm for humanity, he sought to demonstrate the indestructibility of matter and force, and the finality of physical force. The extreme materialism of this work excited so much opposition that he was compelled to give up his post at Tübingen. He retired to Darmstadt, where he practiced as a physician and contributed regularly to pathological and physiological magazines. He continued his philosophical work in defense of materialism, and published Natur und Geist (Nature and Soul, 1857), Aus Natur und Wissenschaft (From Nature and Science, vol. I., 1862; vol. II., 1884), Der Fortschritt in Natur und Geschichte im Lichte der Darwinschen Theorie (Progress in Nature and History in the Light of the Darwinian Theory, 1884), Tatsachen und Theorien aus dem naturwissenschaftlichen Leben der Gegenwart (Facts and Theories from the Scientific Life of Present, 1887), Fremdes und Eigenes aus dem geistligen Leben der Gegenwart (Extraneous and Self from the Spiritual Life of Present, 1890), Darwinismus und Socialismus (1894), Im Dienste der Wahrheit (In the Service of Truth, 1899). Ludwig Büchner's materialism was the founding ground for the freethinkers' movement in Germany. In 1881 he founded in Frankfurt the "German Freethinkers League" ("Deutsche Freidenkerbund").He died at Darmstadt on 1 May 1899. In estimating Büchner's philosophy it must be remembered that he was primarily a physiologist, not a metaphysician. Matter and force (or energy) are infinite; the conservation of force follows from the imperishability of matter, the ultimate basis of all science. Büchner is not always clear in his theory of the relation between matter and force. At one time he refuses to explain it, but generally he assumes that all natural and spiritual forces are indwelling in matter. Just as a steam engine, he says in Kraft und Stoff (7th ed., p. 130), produces motion, so the intricate organic complex of force-bearing substance in an animal organism produces a total sum of certain effects, which, when bound together in a unity, are called by us mind, soul, thought. Here he postulates force and mind as emanating from original matter, a materialistic monism. But in other parts of his works he suggests that mind and matter are two different aspects of that which is the basis of all things, a monism which is not necessarily materialistic. Büchner was much less concerned to establish a scientific metaphysics than to protest against the romantic idealism of his predecessors and the theological interpretations of the universe. Nature according to him is purely physical; it has no purpose, no will, no laws imposed by extraneous authority, no supernatural ethical sanction.Modern Christian apologists consider Büchner the father of atheistic evangelism in Germany, a counterpart to Thomas Huxley.Ludwig Büchner was the brother of Georg Büchner, a famous playwright, and the uncle of Ernst Büchner, inventor of the Büchner flask.
  • Ludwig Büchner (* 29. März 1824 in Darmstadt; † 1. Mai 1899 ebenda), eigentlich Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner war Arzt, Naturwissenschaftler und Philosoph. Im Materialismusstreit war Büchner neben Carl Vogt und Jakob Moleschott einer der fruchtbarsten und erfolgreichsten Vertreter des naturwissenschaftlichen Materialismus.Nach seinem Rufnamen wurde Ludwig Büchner Louis genannt, was gelegentlich zu Verwechslungen führt, denn sowohl sein älterer Bruder Wilhelm wie auch sein jüngerer Bruder Alexander Büchner, der nach 1855 in Frankreich lebte, trugen den Namen Ludwig, den ständigen Vornamen der hessischen Landgrafen und Großherzöge, als zweite Vornamen.
  • Людвиг Бюхнер (нем. Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner; 29 сентября 1824, Дармштадт — 1 мая 1899, там же) — немецкий врач, естествоиспытатель и философ, брат писателя Г. Бюхнера.
  • フリードリヒ・カール・クリスティアン・ルートヴィヒ・ビューヒナー(Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner, 1824年3月29日 - 1899年3月1日)は、ドイツの医師、自然科学者、哲学者。世俗的唯物論(Vulgärmaterialismus)の開拓者の一人。ダルムシュタットに生まれ、ギーセン大学、ストラスブール大学、ウィーン大学で医学、物理学、化学を学んだ。1852年にテュービンゲン大学にて薬学の講師となり、1855年、生理学的唯物論の著書『力と質量』(Kraft und Stoff) を著したが、物質とエネルギーの不滅性を論じたこの著書は当時の学会に受け入れられず、テュービンゲンでの職を追われることとなった。その後はダルムシュタットに戻って執筆生活を続けた。ビューヒナーの唯物論はドイツにおける自由主義思想を先導する役割を果たした。1881年に彼はフランクフルト・アム・マインで「ドイツ自由思想家同盟」(Deutsche Freidenkerbund) を設立、ドイツにおいてはじめて無神論者が公的に集った。兄弟姉妹に革命家・劇作家のゲオルク・ビューヒナーをはじめ、ヴィルヘルム・ビューヒナー、ルイーゼ・ビューヒナー、アレクサンダー・ビューヒナーがいる。ルートヴィヒはゲオルクの死後の1840年に、彼の初の著作集を編集している。
  • Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Louis Büchner (d. 29 Mart 1824, Darmstadt - ö. 1 Mayıs 1899), maddeci Alman düşünürü ve yazar Georg Büchner'in kardeşi. Diyalektik olmayan bir maddeciliğin yılmaz savunuculuğunu yapmış olan Büchner, evrene ilişkin açıklamanın temel ilkeleri olarak yalnızca güç ve maddeyi almış, tinsel bir ruhun varoluşundan hiç bir şekilde söz edilemeyeceğini dile getirmiştir.Bu diyalektik olmayan sistem Mekanizm adı ile de açıklanabilir. Haeckel ci kaba Bir ci sistemle benzerlik göstermektedir. D'Hollbach'ında ardılı olarak görebileceğimiz bu düşünür, tam bir Hegel karşıtı olarak düşünülebilir.
  • Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner (Darmstadt, Alemanya, 29 de març del 1824 - 1 de maig del 1899) va ser un filòsof alemany, fisiòleg i metge que es va convertir en un dels màxims exponents del materialisme científic del segle XIX. Ludwig Büchner era germà de Georg Büchner, famós dramaturg.Büchner va estudiar física, química, botànica, mineralogia, filosofia i medicina a la Universitat de Giessen (1842-1848) on es va graduar el 1848 amb una dissertació titulada Beiträge zur Lehre von einem Hall'schen Nervensystem excitomotorischen (contribucions a la teoria d'un Hallerian Sistema Nerviós excitomotrices). Posteriorment, va continuar els seus estudis a la Universitat d'Estrasburg, de la Universitat de Würzburg (on va estudiar patologia amb Rudolf Virchow) i a la Universitat de Viena. En 1852 es va convertir en professor de medicina a la Universitat de Tübingen, on va publicar la seva gran obra Kraft und Stoff: Empirisch-naturphilosophische Studien (força i matèria: estudis empiricofilosòfca, 1855). En aquest treball, producte d'un entusiasme fanàtic per la humanitat, va tractar de demostrar la indestructibilitat de la matèria i la força, i la finalitat de la força física. El materialisme extrem d'aquest treball emocionat tanta oposició que es va veure obligat a renunciar al seu lloc a Tübingen. Es va retirar a Darmstadt, on va exercir com a metge i va contribuir regularment a les revistes de patologia i fisiologia.Va continuar el seu treball filosòfic en defensa del materialisme, i publica Natur und Geist (natura i ànima, 1857), Aus Natur und Wissenschaft (De la natura i la ciència, vol I, 1862; ... Vol II, 1884), Der Fortschritt Natur und Geschichte en im Licht der Theorie Darwinschen (El progrés en la naturalesa i la història a la llum de la teoria de Darwin, 1884), Tatsachen Theorie und aus dem Leben der Gegenwart naturwissenschaftlichen, Fremde eigen und aus dem Leben der Gegenwart geistligen, Darwinismus und Socialismus (1894), Im Dienst der Wahrheit (Al servei de la veritat, 1899).El materialisme de Ludwig Büchner fou el substrat per al moviment lliurepensador a Alemanya. El 1881 va fundar a Frankfurt del Main la "Lliga de Lliurepensadors alemanya" ("Deutsche Freidenkerbund"), on els ateus van reunir per primera vegada junts en públic en aquest país.
  • Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner (Darmstadt, 29 de Março de 1824 - 1 de maio de 1899) foi um filósofo, escritor e médico alemão do século XIX.Foi partidário das ideias de Darwin sobre o materialismo das ciências naturais e defendeu o primado exclusivo da ciência como fonte fe conhecimento sobre todas as formas de saber teológico e metafísico. Defendeu um monismo consequente, em que a matéria surge como esencialmente «activa», em movimento.
  • Ludwig Büchner (Darmstadt, 29 marzo 1824 – Darmstadt, 1º maggio 1899) è stato un medico e filosofo tedesco.
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  • Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner était un philosophe et naturaliste allemand, né à Darmstadt le 29 mars 1824, mort dans cette même ville le 1er mai 1899.Il était le troisième fils de Louise Caroline Reuss (1791-1858) et d'Ernst Büchner (1786-1861), ancien médecin militaire dans l'armée napoléonienne, médecin à Goddelau puis chimiste industriel renommé, inventeur d'outils scientifiques comme l'entonnoir Büchner.
  • Людвиг Бюхнер (нем. Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner; 29 сентября 1824, Дармштадт — 1 мая 1899, там же) — немецкий врач, естествоиспытатель и философ, брат писателя Г. Бюхнера.
  • フリードリヒ・カール・クリスティアン・ルートヴィヒ・ビューヒナー(Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner, 1824年3月29日 - 1899年3月1日)は、ドイツの医師、自然科学者、哲学者。世俗的唯物論(Vulgärmaterialismus)の開拓者の一人。ダルムシュタットに生まれ、ギーセン大学、ストラスブール大学、ウィーン大学で医学、物理学、化学を学んだ。1852年にテュービンゲン大学にて薬学の講師となり、1855年、生理学的唯物論の著書『力と質量』(Kraft und Stoff) を著したが、物質とエネルギーの不滅性を論じたこの著書は当時の学会に受け入れられず、テュービンゲンでの職を追われることとなった。その後はダルムシュタットに戻って執筆生活を続けた。ビューヒナーの唯物論はドイツにおける自由主義思想を先導する役割を果たした。1881年に彼はフランクフルト・アム・マインで「ドイツ自由思想家同盟」(Deutsche Freidenkerbund) を設立、ドイツにおいてはじめて無神論者が公的に集った。兄弟姉妹に革命家・劇作家のゲオルク・ビューヒナーをはじめ、ヴィルヘルム・ビューヒナー、ルイーゼ・ビューヒナー、アレクサンダー・ビューヒナーがいる。ルートヴィヒはゲオルクの死後の1840年に、彼の初の著作集を編集している。
  • Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner (Darmstadt, 29 de Março de 1824 - 1 de maio de 1899) foi um filósofo, escritor e médico alemão do século XIX.Foi partidário das ideias de Darwin sobre o materialismo das ciências naturais e defendeu o primado exclusivo da ciência como fonte fe conhecimento sobre todas as formas de saber teológico e metafísico. Defendeu um monismo consequente, em que a matéria surge como esencialmente «activa», em movimento.
  • Ludwig Büchner (Darmstadt, 29 marzo 1824 – Darmstadt, 1º maggio 1899) è stato un medico e filosofo tedesco.
  • Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Louis Büchner (d. 29 Mart 1824, Darmstadt - ö. 1 Mayıs 1899), maddeci Alman düşünürü ve yazar Georg Büchner'in kardeşi. Diyalektik olmayan bir maddeciliğin yılmaz savunuculuğunu yapmış olan Büchner, evrene ilişkin açıklamanın temel ilkeleri olarak yalnızca güç ve maddeyi almış, tinsel bir ruhun varoluşundan hiç bir şekilde söz edilemeyeceğini dile getirmiştir.Bu diyalektik olmayan sistem Mekanizm adı ile de açıklanabilir.
  • Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner (29 March 1824 – 1 May 1899) was a German philosopher, physiologist and physician who became one of the exponents of 19th century scientific materialism. Büchner was born at Darmstadt on 29 March 1824.
  • Ludwig Büchner (* 29. März 1824 in Darmstadt; † 1. Mai 1899 ebenda), eigentlich Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner war Arzt, Naturwissenschaftler und Philosoph.
  • Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner (Darmstadt, Alemanya, 29 de març del 1824 - 1 de maig del 1899) va ser un filòsof alemany, fisiòleg i metge que es va convertir en un dels màxims exponents del materialisme científic del segle XIX.
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