Les lectisternes (du latin lectisternium, formé à partir de lectus, lit et de sternare, étendre, coucher) sont un rite de la religion romaine, consistant à inviter les dieux à un banquet, pour apaiser leur colère. Le rite suit le déroulement des banquets à la grecque.

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  • Les lectisternes (du latin lectisternium, formé à partir de lectus, lit et de sternare, étendre, coucher) sont un rite de la religion romaine, consistant à inviter les dieux à un banquet, pour apaiser leur colère. Le rite suit le déroulement des banquets à la grecque. Les statues des dieux sont placées sur des lits de parade ; les déesses peuvent soit partager les lits de parade des dieux, soit être sur des sièges (sellisternes), comme il convient à une personne féminine qui prend part à un banquet.Ce rituel se comprend dans la logique de convivialité antique, où l’invitation au partage de nourriture crée une obligation pour l’invité, ou permet à l’hôte de s’acquitter d’une obligation antérieure vis-à-vis de son invité. Ainsi conviés, les dieux devaient en retour se montrer favorables aux humains.
  • In ancient Roman religion, the lectisternium was a propitiatory ceremony, consisting of a meal offered to gods and goddesses. The word derives from lectum sternere, "to spread (or "drape") a couch." The deities were represented by their busts or statues, or by portable figures of wood, with heads of bronze, wax or marble, and covered with drapery. It has also been suggested that the divine images were bundles of sacred herbs tied together in the form of a head, covered by a waxen mask so as to resemble a kind of bust, rather like the straw figures called Argei. These figures were laid upon a couch (lectus), the left arm resting on a cushion (pulvinus, whence the couch itself was often called pulvinar) in the attitude of reclining. The couch was set out in the open street, and a meal placed before it on a table.Livy says that the ceremony took place "for the first time" in Rome in the year 399 BC, after a pestilence had caused the Sibylline Books to be consulted by the duumviri sacris faciundis, the two priestly officials who maintained the archive. Three couches were prepared for three pairs of gods — Apollo and Latona, Hercules and Diana, Mercury and Neptune. The feast lasted for eight (or seven) days, and was also celebrated by private individuals. The citizens kept open house, quarrels were forgotten, debtors and prisoners were released, and everything done to banish sorrow.Similar honors were paid to other divinities in subsequent times: Fortuna, Saturnus, Juno Regina of the Aventine, the three Capitoline deities (Jupiter, Juno, Minerva). In 217 BC, after the Roman defeat at Lake Trasimene, a lectisternium was held for three days to six pairs of gods, corresponding to the Twelve Olympians of ancient Greek religion: Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Minerva, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Diana, Vulcan, Vesta, Mercury, Ceres.In 205 BC, alarmed by unfavorable prodigies, the Romans were ordered to fetch the Great Mother of the gods from Pessinus in Phrygia; in the following year the image was brought to Rome, and a lectisternium held. In later times, the lectisternium became a constant or even daily occurrence, celebrated in the different temples. Occasionally the "Draping of Couches" was part of Roman Triumph celebrations. Aulus Hirtius reports that Julius Caesar was greeted with "draped dining couches" following his victory in Gaul, in anticipation of a forthcoming triumph. Such celebrations must be distinguished from those which were ordered, like the earlier lectisternia, by the Sibylline Books in special emergencies.Offerings of food were made to the gods in very early Roman times on such occasions as the ceremony of confarreatio, and the epulum Jovis (often confounded with the lectisternium). The lectisternia, however, are likely of Greek origin.[citation needed] The Greek theoxenia (Θεοξένια) is similar, except that the gods played the part of host. The gods associated with it were either previously unknown to Roman religion, though often concealed under Roman names, or were provided with a new cult. Thus Hercules was not worshipped as at the Ara Maxima, where, according to Servius and Cornelius Balbus a lectisternium was forbidden. The Sibylline Books, which decided whether a lectisternium was to be held or not, were of Greek origin; the custom of reclining at meals was Greek.Some, however, assign an Etruscan origin to the ceremony, the Sibylline Books themselves being looked upon as old Italian "black books." It may be that as the lectisternia became an almost everyday occurrence in Rome, people forgot their foreign origin and the circumstances in which they were first introduced, and then the word pulvinar with its associations was transferred to times in which it had no existence.In the Imperial era, chairs were substituted for couches in the case of goddesses, and the lectisternium in their case became a sellisternium. This was in accordance with Roman custom, since in the earliest times all the members of a family sat at meals, and in later times at least the women and children. This is a point of distinction between the original practice at the lectisternium and the epulum Jovis, the goddesses at the latter being provided with chairs, whereas in the lectisternium they reclined.In Christian times the word was used for a feast in memory of the dead.
  • Лектистернии (от лат. lectus — "ложе" и sternere — "постилам") е церемония в Древен Рим, която има за цел за омилостиви боговете. В храмовете се поставяли изображения на боговете на ложи, а пред тях маси с храна. Цялото население на Рим празнувало 8 дни. Обичаят е бил чрез такива пирове да се умилостивяват боговете при масови бедствия. Ливий твърди, че тази церемония за първи път се използва през 399 пр.н.е., след тълкуване в Сибилските книги, в търсене на спасение от чумна епидемия.
  • Das Lectisternium (von lateinisch lectus „Bett“, „Kissen“ und sternere „ausbreiten“) war ein feierliches Göttermahl im alten Rom. Dabei wurden die Bildnisse der Götter oder ihre jeweiligen Attribute auf prächtige Polster, die mit kostbaren Decken drapiert waren, gelegt und mit daneben gestellten Speisen symbolisch bewirtet. Da diese Form der Götterverehrung ursprünglich in Griechenland praktiziert wurde – dort hieß sie theoxenia und richtete sich vor allem an die wandernden oder fernen Götter wie die Dioskuren, Asklepios oder Apollon –, markiert ihre Einführung in Rom den zunehmenden Einfluss griechischer Kulte. Das erste bezeugte Lectisternium fand 399 v. Chr. aufgrund eines Orakels der Sibyllinischen Bücher statt, die man wegen einer in Rom wütenden Seuche befragt hatte. Teilnehmer des Göttermahles waren Apollo und Latona, Hercules und Diana sowie Mercurius und Neptunus, deren Bildnisse paarweise auf drei Liegen vor den Speisetischen ausgestellt wurden.Das Lectisternium scheint eine Opferform gewesen zu sein, die man besonders in Krisenzeiten für angebracht hielt. So ist unmittelbar nach der Niederlage am Trasimenischen See ein Lectisternium bezeugt. Während des Zweiten Punischen Krieges fanden Lectisternia auf dem Capitolium , am Tempel der Iuno Regina und am Tempel des Saturnus statt. Im privaten Bereich gab es das Lectisternium hauptsächlich bei Begräbnissen.Die Abhaltung eines Lectisterniums (lectisternium habere) wird auch mit pulvinar suscipere oder cenae ad pulvinaria umschrieben. Beide Ausdrücke beziehen sich auf die dafür verwandten kostbaren Polster, die Pulvinar genannt werden.
  • Las lectisternas eran ceremonias religiosas practicada por los romanos en tiempos de calamidades públicas para que cesaran de afligirles. Consistía en un festín o repetidos banquetes que en nombre y a expensas de la República se daban a las divinidades en sus templos mismos. Se ponía una gran mesa con muchas camas o lechos en derredor de ella cubiertos con los más ricos tapices y hierbas odoríferas sobre las cuales se colocaban las estatuas de los dioses invitados al festín. Para las diosas se ponían sillas en lugar de lechos, por razón de decencia. Todo el tiempo que duraba la fiesta, que solía ser ocho días, se servía diariamente una comida espléndida que los sacerdotes cuidaban de preparar en la víspera. Los particulares que asistían a estos banquetes dejaban sus casas abiertas y con entera libertad para que cada uno pudiera tomarse lo que quisiera ejerciendo entonces particularmente la hospitalidad con toda clase de gentes conocidas, desconocidas y extranjeras. Al mismo tiempo cesaba toda especie de animosidad o resentimiento que se tuviese con cualquiera, paraban los pleitos, se ponía en libertad a los presos, etc.Se ha creído generalmente que las lectisternas fueron de institución romana pero Casaubon manifestó que las tomaron de los griegos, los cuales las adoptaron de los medas y otros pueblos orientales que tenían la costumbre de ofrecer a sus divinidades comidas magníficas que comían los sacerdotes por ellas.La primera lectisterna celebrada en Roma fue por los años 399 antes de Jesucristo, después de un invierno riguroso seguido de un verano en el que la peste hizo perecer una multitud de ganado. La dirección y cuidado de esta fiesta fue confiada a los decemviros sibilinos hasta el año de Roma 558 en que se crearon los Epulones a quienes se dio la superintendencia de todos los festines sagrados.El nombre, de lectisterna le tomó de la acción de preparar los lechos. Se conservan todavía algunas medallas que representan esta ceremonia expiatoria.
  • Lectisternium (mv.: lectisternia, van het Latijnse lectum sternere / "een bed spreiden"; στρωμναί / strômnaí (Dionysius van Halicarnassus, XII 9.)) was in de Romeinse godsdienst een offermaaltijd van de goden, waarbij hun beelden aanlagen, of - die van de godinnen - aanzaten.De Senatoren namen mee deel aan zulk een maaltijd. Lectisternia werden òf op gezette tijden gehouden, òf bij een bijzondere aanleiding, hetzij om de hulp van de goden in nood af te smeken, hetzij om voor ontvangen hulp de verschuldigden dank te bewijzen.
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  • Les lectisternes (du latin lectisternium, formé à partir de lectus, lit et de sternare, étendre, coucher) sont un rite de la religion romaine, consistant à inviter les dieux à un banquet, pour apaiser leur colère. Le rite suit le déroulement des banquets à la grecque.
  • Лектистернии (от лат. lectus — "ложе" и sternere — "постилам") е церемония в Древен Рим, която има за цел за омилостиви боговете. В храмовете се поставяли изображения на боговете на ложи, а пред тях маси с храна. Цялото население на Рим празнувало 8 дни. Обичаят е бил чрез такива пирове да се умилостивяват боговете при масови бедствия. Ливий твърди, че тази церемония за първи път се използва през 399 пр.н.е., след тълкуване в Сибилските книги, в търсене на спасение от чумна епидемия.
  • Lectisternium (mv.: lectisternia, van het Latijnse lectum sternere / "een bed spreiden"; στρωμναί / strômnaí (Dionysius van Halicarnassus, XII 9.)) was in de Romeinse godsdienst een offermaaltijd van de goden, waarbij hun beelden aanlagen, of - die van de godinnen - aanzaten.De Senatoren namen mee deel aan zulk een maaltijd.
  • In ancient Roman religion, the lectisternium was a propitiatory ceremony, consisting of a meal offered to gods and goddesses. The word derives from lectum sternere, "to spread (or "drape") a couch." The deities were represented by their busts or statues, or by portable figures of wood, with heads of bronze, wax or marble, and covered with drapery.
  • Das Lectisternium (von lateinisch lectus „Bett“, „Kissen“ und sternere „ausbreiten“) war ein feierliches Göttermahl im alten Rom. Dabei wurden die Bildnisse der Götter oder ihre jeweiligen Attribute auf prächtige Polster, die mit kostbaren Decken drapiert waren, gelegt und mit daneben gestellten Speisen symbolisch bewirtet.
  • Las lectisternas eran ceremonias religiosas practicada por los romanos en tiempos de calamidades públicas para que cesaran de afligirles. Consistía en un festín o repetidos banquetes que en nombre y a expensas de la República se daban a las divinidades en sus templos mismos. Se ponía una gran mesa con muchas camas o lechos en derredor de ella cubiertos con los más ricos tapices y hierbas odoríferas sobre las cuales se colocaban las estatuas de los dioses invitados al festín.
rdfs:label
  • Lectisterne
  • Lectisternas
  • Lectisternium
  • Lectisternium
  • Lectisternium
  • Лектистернии
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