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  • L'État et la Révolution : la doctrine marxiste de l'État et les tâches du prolétariat dans la révolution est un ouvrage rédigé par Lénine en 1917 lors de son retour en Russie.En septembre 1917, pendant la Révolution russe, il souhaite théoriser le rôle de l'État, la rédaction du livre fut interrompue par les événements d'octobre 1917.Lénine déclare défendre les analyses de Karl Marx et Friedrich Engels sur la nature de l'État contre ce qu'il considère être une déformation de leur pensée par les théoriciens réformistes de la social-démocratie qui se réclament du marxisme, en particulier Karl Kautsky. L'État y est analysé comme un instrument d'oppression visant à assurer la domination d'une classe sociale sur une autre dans un mode de production donné. Selon Lénine, qui reprend une formule d'Engels, l'État est l'aveu même du caractère inconciliable des intérêts des classes qui s'affrontent, dans la mesure où il met en place un ensemble d'institutions répressives (groupes armés, justice…) visant à assurer la pérennité de l'ordre social établi. Il n'est donc pas susceptible d'être réformé dans le sens du socialisme, comme l'affirmeraient certains socialistes, mais doit être renversé.Lénine parle d'une première étape qui correspond à la destruction de l'État bourgeois et son remplacement par un « État ouvrier ». Celui-ci resterait toujours un instrument d'oppression mais de la classe ouvrière envers la classe possédante afin d'opérer à la « socialisation des biens ». Ceci fait, l'antagonisme de classes (entre bourgeoisie et prolétariat) disparaitrait étant donné qu'aucune classe n'aurait la propriété des moyens de production. On serait alors en présence d'une société sans classe et par voie de conséquence, sans État car par définition l'État est un instrument de classe.
  • 『国家と革命』(こっかとかくめい、ロシア語: ГОСУДАРСТВО И РЕВОЛЮЦИЯ)とは1917年にロシアの革命家ウラジーミル・レーニンによって著された著作である。
  • The State and Revolution (1917), by Vladimir Lenin, describes the role of the State in society, the necessity of proletarian revolution, and the theoretic inadequacies of social democracy in achieving revolution to establish the dictatorship of the proletariat.The State and Revolution is considered to be Lenin's most important work on the state and has been called by Lucio Colletti "Lenin's greatest contribution to political theory" According to the Marxologist David McLellan, "the book had its origin in Lenin's argument with Bukharin in the summer of 1916 over the existence of the state after a proletarian revolution. Bukharin had emphasised the 'withering' aspect, whereas Lenin insisted on the necessity of the state machinery to expropriate the expropriators. In fact, it was Lenin who changed his mind, and many of the ideas of State and Revolution, composed in the summer of 1917 - and particularly the anti-Statist theme - were those of Bukharin" Lenin's direct and simple definition of the State is that "the State is a special organisation of force: it is an organisation of violence for the suppression of some class." Hence his denigration even of parliamentary democracy, which was influenced by what Lenin saw as the recent increase of bureaucratic and military influences: "To decide once every few years which member of the ruling class is to repress and crush the people through parliament - this is the real essence of bourgeois parliamentarism, not only in parliamentary-constitutional monarchies, but also in the most democratic republics" Citing Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx, Lenin clarifies theoretical questions about the existence of the State after the proletarian revolution, addressing the arguments of anti-authoritarians, anarchists, social democrats, and reformists, in describing the progressive stages of societal change — the revolution, establishing “the lower stage of communist society” (the socialist commune), and the “higher stage of communist society” that will yield a stable society where personal freedom might be fully expressed.Lenin especially defends Marx’s theory of Communism, and Marxism generally; to wit, when old revolutionaries die, the bourgeoisie are not content with labelling them “enemies of the state”, because that would attract political radicals, so they attack the revolutionaries’ theoretic writings by ascribing to them an (anti-revolutionary) social-democratic mediocrity contrary to “the revolutionary nature of Marx”; such bourgeois intellectuals are the “revisionists” who transform a human being into an abstraction:During the lifetime of great revolutionaries, the oppressing classes constantly hounded them, received their theories with the most savage malice, the most furious hatred, and the most unscrupulous campaigns of lies and slander. After their deaths, attempts are made to convert them into harmless icons, to canonize them, so to say, and to hallow their names, to a certain extent, for the ‘consolation’ of the oppressed classes, and with the object of duping the latter, while, at the same time, robbing the revolutionary theory of its substance, blunting its revolutionary edge, and vulgarizing it. Today, the bourgeoisie and the opportunists within the labour movement concur in this doctoring of Marxism. They omit, obscure, or distort the revolutionary side of this theory, its revolutionary soul. They push to the foreground and extol what is, or seems, acceptable to the bourgeoisie. All the social-chauvinists are now ‘Marxists’ (don’t laugh!). And more and more frequently, German bourgeois scholars, only yesterday specialists in the annihilation of Marxism, are speaking of the ‘national-German’ Marx, who, they claim, educated the labour unions, which are so splendidly organised for the purpose of waging a predatory war!The State and Revolution describes the inherent nature of the State as a tool for class oppression, a creation born of a social class’s desire to control the other social classes of its society when politico-economic disputes cannot otherwise be amicably resolved; if a dictatorship or a democracy, the State remains the social-control means of the ruling class. Even in a democratic capitalist republic, the ruling class never relinquish political power, maintaining it via the “behind-the-scenes” control of universal suffrage — an excellent deception that maintains the idealistic concepts of “freedom and democracy”; hence, communist revolution is the sole remedy for such demagogy:(i) The anarchists propose the State’s immediate abolishment; Lenin counter-proposes that such idealism is pragmatically impossible, because the proletariat would need to crush the bourgeois resistance through a mechanism, and that is the state.(ii) Were the State immediately abolished, without the “conditions leading to the arising of the State” being abolished as well, a new State would appear, and the socialist revolution would have been for naught.In the event, the proletariat through the dictatorship of the proletariat would establish a communal State (per the 1871 Paris Commune model), then gradually suppress the dissenting bourgeoisie, in achieving the withering away of the State as its institutions begin to “lose their political character”.Thus, following Marx's conclusions on the Paris commune, which Lenin took as his model Lenin declared that the task of the Revolution was to smash the State. Although for a period under communism, "there remains for a time not only bourgeois right but even the bourgeois State without the bourgeoisie," Lenin believed that after a successful proletarian revolution the state had not only begun to wither, but was in an advanced condition of decomposition. But Lenin also called the state "the armed and ruling proletariat" so McLellan asks whether this, too withers? Yes, according to McLellan, "in so far as it was in any way a power separate from and opposed to, the masses" Lenin had little to say of the institutional form of this transition period. There was a strong emphasis on the dictatorship of the proletariat: "A Marxist is solely someone who extends the recognition of the class struggle to the recognition of the dictatorship of the proletariat. This is what constitutes the most profound distinction between the Marxist and the ordinary petty (as well as big) bourgeois. This is the touchstone on which the real understanding and recognition of Marxism is to be tested."
  • O estado e a revolução (em russo Государство и революция) é um livro de Vladimir Lênin publicado em setembro de 1917, às vésperas da Revolução de Outubro liderada pelo partido Bolchevique.No livro Lênin discute a teoria marxista em diálogo com os anarquistas e especialmente aqueles a que chama de oportunistas, os pensadores e partidos socialistas que tendiam a uma interpretação de evolução gradual do capitalismo ao socialismo defendendo os meios parlamentares como legítimos quando não únicos para a luta do proletariado frente aos capitalistas.Entre os pensadores mais discutidos se encontram Karl Kautsky, Plekhânov e Bernstein. Entre os partidos estão os socialistas-revolucionários e mencheviques da Rússia, então, em crise, assim como a ala reformista da social-democracia alemã.A todos Lênin atribuiu o erro de distorcer as palavras de Marx sobre a revolução da sociedade capitalista para a comunista e de se lançarem em defesa de teorias nacionalistas que vão contra as teses essenciais da luta dos trabalhadores, i.e. o internacionalismo, além de moderarem seus discursos com vistas a cadeiras nos parlamentos burgueses.Contra os anarquistas, Lênin, apesar de concordar com os fins últimos destes, dizia que não compreendiam as fases reais da transformação social. Os anarquistas, ao advogarem a abolição pura e simples do Estado e de seu aparato militar e burocrático, não teriam entendido as lições da Comuna de Paris em que se fazia necessário a manutenção de funções administrativas de um estado, que enquanto tal, não seria um estado propriamente dito, ou seja, a organização sistemática da violência de uma minoria dominante sobre uma maioria dominada. No caso do Estado constituído pela ditadura do proletariado, aí sim existiria uma verdadeira democracia: toda a sociedade, ou sua maior parte, teria acesso a governança. Além do que o povo em armas, constituído em milícias, seria responsável pela repressão da contra-revolução perpetrada inevitavelmente pelos seguimentos da burguesia reacionária que tentariam acabar com o desenvolvimento da revolução socialista no caso de uma sua vitória inicial. Além do que, o "Estado" proletário não poderia ser perpetuado com a tomada de algumas medidas essenciais para seu futuro definhamento: a destruição do seu aparato burocrático e militar permanente; todas as funções públicas deveriam ser de mandato imperativo e revogável a qualquer momento; nenhum cargo público deveria ser gratificado com um salário maior que o de um operário; e a substituição do parlamento burguês, este dado ao "falatório", por um proletário que concentraria as funções legislativas e executivas;
  • Devlet ve Devrim, Vladimir İlyiç Lenin'in 1917 yılının Ağustos ve Eylül ayları arasında yazdığı kitaptır. Lenin bu kitabında Devlet organının varlık nedenlerini ve sosyalist devrim sonrası kurulacak bir proletarya diktatörlüğünde devlet organının nasıl ve neden sönümleneceği üzerine varolan marksist teorileri geliştirmiştir. Kitap 6 bölümden meydana gelmekte ve (aslında 7 kısımdan oluşması düşünülüyordu) marksist devlet teorisini açıklamakta ve proleter devrimin devlet sorununa bakış açısını incelemektedirLenin, İlk iki bölümde devleti, Marx ve Engels'ten yaptığı alıntılarla sınıf mücadeleleri ve karşıtlıkları sebebiyle ortaya çıkan ve bir sınıfın diğer sınıf üzerine baskı uygulayan mekanizma olarak tanımlamıştır.Sınıflı toplumlarda varolan devlet organizmasının hakim sınıfın ezilen sınıf üzerindeki baskı mekanizması olduğunu ve toplumda sınıflar olduğu sürece bir devlet organizmasının varolacağını belirtmiştir. Sınıfsız toplumu kurma amacında olan sosyalist devlet yapısını ise İşçi sınıfının burjuvazi üzerindeki diktatörlüğü olarak tanımlamış ve burjuvazinin ve sınıfların tarihe karışması ile birlikte devlet organın da yokolacağını (söneceğini) anlatmıştır. Daha sonraki bölümlerde 19.yy devrimlerinin devlet mekanizmasina karşı tutumu ve proleter devrimin (Paris Komünü) devlet sorununa bakış açısını incelemiş, proletarya diktatörlüğündeki devlet organlarının nasıl olması gerektiğini Marx ve Engels'in 1871 Paris Komünü üzerine yaptığı çıkarsamalarla pekiştirmiştir.Lenin bu kitabında, proleter devrimin eski burjuva devlet mekanizmasina karşı tutumunu Marx'ın "İşçi sınıfı yalnızca devlet erkliğini ele geçirip onu hesabına kullanmakla yetinemez" ilkesinden yola çıkarak açıklamıştır. Kitap 2 adet devrimi devlet sorununa bakış açısıyla incelemektedir. Birincisi 1848 alman devrimleri ve 2 aralık 1851'de Napolyon Bonaparte'ın cumhuriyetçi hükümete yaptığı askeri darbenin devlet sorununa bakış açısını, ikincisi ise 18 mart 1871'de Paris'li işçilerin kapitalist Versailles hükümetine karşı giriştikleri 3 aylık Paris Komünü deneyimidir.7.Bölüm olması için tasarlanan ama tamamlanamayan son kısım Lenin tarafından, 1905 ve 1917 (Şubat) Rus devrimlerinin devlet sorunu ile ilişkilerini ele alacaktı. Ama araya Ekim Sosyalist Devriminin girmesi neticesinde, bu son kısım hiç bir zaman yazılamadı.
  • El Estado y la revolución es un libro escrito por Lenin entre agosto y septiembre de 1917, mientras se encontraba en la clandestinidad en Finlandia. Es un texto fundamental, en la medida en que fue redactado entre la primera etapa (febrero) y la segunda etapa (octubre) de la revolución rusa de 1917. Por eso se ha considerado que esta obra, junto con otras del mismo período, proporciona claves para comprender la idea que tenía Lenin de lo que iba a ser y de lo que debía ser dicha revolución.Se trata de un texto plagado de citas textuales, de lecturas y comentarios a los clásicos del marxismo en relación con la cuestión del Estado, respecto de la cual consideraba que teóricos posteriores (como Plejánov o Kautsky) no habían hecho más que tergiversar el marxismo.
  • Staat und Revolution ist ein von Wladimir Iljitsch Lenin 1917 verfasster Text, der sich, wie es im Untertitel geschrieben steht, mit der Lehre des Marxismus vom Staat sowie den Aufgaben des Proletariats während der Revolution beschäftigt. Er gilt als einer der Klassiker des Sozialismus und als eine der zentralen Schriften zur Staatstheorie.
  • Stato e rivoluzione (in russo: Государство и революция, Gosudarstvo i revoljucija) è un saggio scritto da Vladimir Lenin nell'agosto-settembre 1917. In questo libro Lenin sostenne che la rivoluzione socialista, pur mirando a realizzare un obiettivo di libertà collettiva, dovesse passare attraverso una fase di esercizio del potere assoluto da parte del "partito degli operai e dei contadini", con la sospensione delle garanzie civili e politiche tipiche delle democrazie liberali (libere elezioni, libertà di stampa e di associazione). All'interno dell'opuscolo viene distinta una parte a rilievo storico intitolata "La dittatura del proletariato".
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  • L'État et la Révolution : la doctrine marxiste de l'État et les tâches du prolétariat dans la révolution est un ouvrage rédigé par Lénine en 1917 lors de son retour en Russie.En septembre 1917, pendant la Révolution russe, il souhaite théoriser le rôle de l'État, la rédaction du livre fut interrompue par les événements d'octobre 1917.Lénine déclare défendre les analyses de Karl Marx et Friedrich Engels sur la nature de l'État contre ce qu'il considère être une déformation de leur pensée par les théoriciens réformistes de la social-démocratie qui se réclament du marxisme, en particulier Karl Kautsky.
  • 『国家と革命』(こっかとかくめい、ロシア語: ГОСУДАРСТВО И РЕВОЛЮЦИЯ)とは1917年にロシアの革命家ウラジーミル・レーニンによって著された著作である。
  • Staat und Revolution ist ein von Wladimir Iljitsch Lenin 1917 verfasster Text, der sich, wie es im Untertitel geschrieben steht, mit der Lehre des Marxismus vom Staat sowie den Aufgaben des Proletariats während der Revolution beschäftigt. Er gilt als einer der Klassiker des Sozialismus und als eine der zentralen Schriften zur Staatstheorie.
  • Stato e rivoluzione (in russo: Государство и революция, Gosudarstvo i revoljucija) è un saggio scritto da Vladimir Lenin nell'agosto-settembre 1917.
  • Devlet ve Devrim, Vladimir İlyiç Lenin'in 1917 yılının Ağustos ve Eylül ayları arasında yazdığı kitaptır. Lenin bu kitabında Devlet organının varlık nedenlerini ve sosyalist devrim sonrası kurulacak bir proletarya diktatörlüğünde devlet organının nasıl ve neden sönümleneceği üzerine varolan marksist teorileri geliştirmiştir.
  • O estado e a revolução (em russo Государство и революция) é um livro de Vladimir Lênin publicado em setembro de 1917, às vésperas da Revolução de Outubro liderada pelo partido Bolchevique.No livro Lênin discute a teoria marxista em diálogo com os anarquistas e especialmente aqueles a que chama de oportunistas, os pensadores e partidos socialistas que tendiam a uma interpretação de evolução gradual do capitalismo ao socialismo defendendo os meios parlamentares como legítimos quando não únicos para a luta do proletariado frente aos capitalistas.Entre os pensadores mais discutidos se encontram Karl Kautsky, Plekhânov e Bernstein.
  • The State and Revolution (1917), by Vladimir Lenin, describes the role of the State in society, the necessity of proletarian revolution, and the theoretic inadequacies of social democracy in achieving revolution to establish the dictatorship of the proletariat.The State and Revolution is considered to be Lenin's most important work on the state and has been called by Lucio Colletti "Lenin's greatest contribution to political theory" According to the Marxologist David McLellan, "the book had its origin in Lenin's argument with Bukharin in the summer of 1916 over the existence of the state after a proletarian revolution.
  • El Estado y la revolución es un libro escrito por Lenin entre agosto y septiembre de 1917, mientras se encontraba en la clandestinidad en Finlandia. Es un texto fundamental, en la medida en que fue redactado entre la primera etapa (febrero) y la segunda etapa (octubre) de la revolución rusa de 1917.
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  • L'État et la Révolution
  • Devlet ve Devrim
  • El Estado y la revolución
  • O Estado e a Revolução
  • Staat und Revolution
  • Stato e rivoluzione
  • The State and Revolution
  • 国家と革命
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