Le jaunissement mortel du palmier est une maladie à phytoplasme, transmise par des insectes vecteurs de l'ordre des hémiptères, qui affecte de nombreuses espèces de palmiers, et notamment certaines espèces ayant une grande importance économique comme le cocotier et le palmier dattier.

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dbpedia-owl:abstract
  • Le jaunissement mortel du palmier est une maladie à phytoplasme, transmise par des insectes vecteurs de l'ordre des hémiptères, qui affecte de nombreuses espèces de palmiers, et notamment certaines espèces ayant une grande importance économique comme le cocotier et le palmier dattier. Cette maladie est présente dans les Antilles, en Amérique du Nord et en Amérique centrale, ainsi qu'en Afrique.Cette maladie est connue sous divers noms locaux, notamment : maladie d'Awka (Nigeria), flétrissement de Cape Saint-Paul (Ghana), maladie de Kaïncopé (Togo), maladie de Kribi (Cameroun), maladie inconnue (Jamaïque), jaunisse létale des palmiers, pourriture du bourgeon terminal (Haïti). Toutes ces formes de maladie sont désormais attribuées au phytoplasme du jaunissement mortel du palmier.
  • Lethal Yellowing is a phytoplasma disease that attacks many species of palms, including some commercially important species such as the coconut and date palm. It is spread by the planthopper Haplaxius crudus (former name Myndus crudus) which is native to Florida, parts of the Caribbean and Central America .[citation needed] Infected plants will normally die in 3 to 6 months.[citation needed] The only effective cure is prevention, i.e. planting resistant varieties of coconut palm and preventing a park or 'golf course like' environments which attracts the planthopper.[citation needed] Some cultivars, such as the Jamaica Tall coconut cultivar nearly died out by lethal yellowing. Heavy turf grasses and similar green ground cover will attract the planthopper to lay its eggs and the nymphs develop at the roots of these grasses. The planthoppers eggs and nymphs may pose a great threat to coconut growing countries' economies, into which grass seeds for golf courses and lawns are imported from the Americas. It is not clearly understood how the disease was spread to East Africa as the planthopper Haplaxius crudus is not native in East Africa.The only explanation is that it was imported with grass seed from Florida that were used to create golf courses and lawns in beach resorts. There is a direct connection between green lawns and the spread of lethal yellowing in Florida. Even so-called 'resistant cultivars' such as the Malayan Dwarf or the Maypan hybrid between that dwarf and the Panama Tall were never claimed to have a 100% immunity.The nymphs of the planthoppers develop on roots of grasses, hence the areas of grass in the vicinity of palm trees is connected with the spread of this phytoplasma disease. The problem arose as a direct result of using coconut and date palms for ornamental and landscaping purposes in lawns, golf courses and gardens together with these grasses. When these two important food palms were grown in traditional ways (without grasses) in plantations and along the shores, the palm groves weren't noticeably affected by lethal yellowing. There is no evidence that disease can be spread when instruments used to cut an infected palm are then used to cut or trim a healthy one. Seed transmission has never been demonstrated, although the phytoplasma can be found in coconut seednuts, but phytosanitary quarantine procedures that prevent movement of coconut seed, seedlings and mature palms out of an LY epidemic area should be applied to grasses and other plants that may be carrying infected vectors.
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prop-fr:agents
  • ' Candidatus Phytoplasma palmae'
prop-fr:année
  • 1995 (xsd:integer)
prop-fr:auteur
  • C. Oropeza, F. W. Howard, G. R. Ashburner
prop-fr:codeOepp
  • PHYP56
prop-fr:hôtes
  • Palmiers
prop-fr:isbn
  • 9780792337232 (xsd:double)
prop-fr:langue
  • en
prop-fr:légende
  • Cocotier atteint par le jaunissement mortel.
prop-fr:nom
  • Jaunissement mortel du palmier
prop-fr:nomsCommuns
  • Jaunissement mortel du palmier,
  • flétrissement de Cape Saint-Paul,
  • jaunisse létale des palmiers,
  • maladie d'Awka,
  • maladie de Kaïncopé,
  • maladie de Kribi
  • pourriture du bourgeon terminal du cocotier,
prop-fr:pages
  • 250 (xsd:integer)
prop-fr:répartition
  • pantropicale
prop-fr:titre
  • Lethal yellowing: research and practical aspects - Volume 5 de Developments in plant pathology
prop-fr:type
prop-fr:wikiPageUsesTemplate
prop-fr:éditeur
  • Kluwer Academic
dcterms:subject
rdfs:comment
  • Le jaunissement mortel du palmier est une maladie à phytoplasme, transmise par des insectes vecteurs de l'ordre des hémiptères, qui affecte de nombreuses espèces de palmiers, et notamment certaines espèces ayant une grande importance économique comme le cocotier et le palmier dattier.
  • Lethal Yellowing is a phytoplasma disease that attacks many species of palms, including some commercially important species such as the coconut and date palm. It is spread by the planthopper Haplaxius crudus (former name Myndus crudus) which is native to Florida, parts of the Caribbean and Central America .[citation needed] Infected plants will normally die in 3 to 6 months.[citation needed] The only effective cure is prevention, i.e.
rdfs:label
  • Jaunissement mortel du palmier
  • Lethal yellowing
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