L’insuffisance rénale chronique se caractérise par une altération irréversible du système de filtration glomérulaire, de la fonction tubulaire et endocrine des reins. On constate une destruction du parenchyme rénal puis des anomalies métaboliques, hormonales et cliniques définissant le syndrome urémique.

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  • L’insuffisance rénale chronique se caractérise par une altération irréversible du système de filtration glomérulaire, de la fonction tubulaire et endocrine des reins. On constate une destruction du parenchyme rénal puis des anomalies métaboliques, hormonales et cliniques définissant le syndrome urémique. On mesure l'importance de l'insuffisance rénale chronique par le calcul de la clairance de la créatinine par la formule de Cockcroft et Gault pour l'adulte et la formule de Schwartz chez l'enfant. L'insuffisance rénale chronique évolue très lentement. Au stade débutante, elle est peu symptomatique voire silencieuse. Lorsque les premiers symptômes apparaissent la destruction rénale est déjà souvent importante, lorsqu'elle devient sévère, le retentissement viscéral et métabolique est bruyant et conduit, en l'absence de traitement, à la mort.
  • Beim chronischen Nierenversagen (chronische Niereninsuffizienz, chronische Nierenkrankheit) handelt es sich um einen langsamen, über Monate oder Jahre voranschreitenden Verlust der Nierenfunktion. Im engeren Sinn der aktuellen Leitlinien bezeichnet der Begriff chronisches Nierenversagen das Terminal- oder Endstadium einer chronischen Nierenkrankheit, das gekennzeichnet ist durch eine Nierenleistung von 15 % der Norm oder darunter (entsprechend einer glomerulären Filtrationsrate von unter 15 ml/min/1,73 m²) und die Notwendigkeit einer Nierenersatztherapie in Form von Dialysebehandlung oder Nierentransplantation. Dieser Artikel behandelt die chronische Nierenkrankheit in allen Stadien inklusive des Terminalstadiums.
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease (CRD), is a progressive loss in renal function over a period of months or years. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are non-specific, and might include feeling generally unwell and experiencing a reduced appetite. Often, chronic kidney disease is diagnosed as a result of screening of people known to be at risk of kidney problems, such as those with high blood pressure or diabetes and those with a blood relative with chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease may also be identified when it leads to one of its recognized complications, such as cardiovascular disease, anemia or pericarditis. It is differentiated from acute kidney disease in that the reduction in kidney function must be present for over 3 months.Chronic kidney disease is identified by a blood test for creatinine. Higher levels of creatinine indicate a lower glomerular filtration rate and as a result a decreased capability of the kidneys to excrete waste products. Creatinine levels may be normal in the early stages of CKD, and the condition is discovered if urinalysis (testing of a urine sample) shows that the kidney is allowing the loss of protein or red blood cells into the urine. To fully investigate the underlying cause of kidney damage, various forms of medical imaging, blood tests and often renal biopsy (removing a small sample of kidney tissue) are employed to find out if there is a reversible cause for the kidney malfunction. Recent professional guidelines classify the severity of chronic kidney disease in five stages, with stage 1 being the mildest and usually causing few symptoms and stage 5 being a severe illness with poor life expectancy if untreated. Stage 5 CKD is often called end stage renal disease (ESRD), end stage renal failure (ESRF), or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and is synonymous with the now outdated terms chronic kidney failure (CKF) or chronic renal failure (CRF).There is no specific treatment unequivocally shown to slow the worsening of chronic kidney disease. If there is an underlying cause to CKD, such as vasculitis, this may be treated directly to slow the damage. In more advanced stages, treatments may be required for anemia and bone disease. Severe CKD requires renal replacement therapy, which may involve a form of dialysis, but ideally constitutes a kidney transplant.
  • 요독증(尿毒症)은 신부전에 수반하는 질환의 명칭으로, 특히 신장의 기능 부전으로 인한 질소를 함유한 노폐물에 의한 경우를 말한다.간부전일 때, 통상 소변을 통해서 배출되는 요소와 다른 노폐물들이 혈액에 계속 보존된다. 초기 증상으로는 식욕이 감퇴하고 무기력해지며, 말기에는 정신력이 줄어들고 혼수상태에 이를 수 있다. 다른 증상으로는 피로, 어지러움증, 구토, 오한, 골통(bone pain), 가려움, 숨가쁨, 발작 등이 있다.
  • La insuficiència renal crònica és una síndrome caracteritzada per una pèrdua progressiva del filtrat glomerular i generalment irreversible. Quan es dóna urèmia ja és una insuficiència en estat terminal i només pot ser revertida mitjançant el trasplantament renal essent insuficient la diàlisi.
  • U chronického renálního selhání (CHRI) dochází k postupnému selhávání ledvin (během několika let až desetiletí), jakožto následek širokého spektra systémových onemocnění. Vede k nevratnému poškození ledvin, resp. k zániku nefronů, které s časem narůstá. Množství profiltrované moči, tzv. glomerulární filtrace, postupně klesá, a sice z normálních hodnot 1,5 - 2 ml/s na nízké hodnoty podle závažnosti a stupně poškození, v pokročilých stádiích pod hodnoty 0,25 ml/s. Dochází tedy k poklesu filtrační schopnosti ledvin až o 90 %. Nízké hodnoty jsou indikací k dlouhodobé dialýze.
  • Хрони́ческая боле́знь по́чек (англ. chronic kidney disease, сокр. ХБП) — повреждение почек либо снижение их функции в течение 3 месяцев и более. Заболевание классифицируется на 5 стадий, которые различаются по тактике ведения больного и риску развития терминальной почечной недостаточности и сердечно-сосудистых осложнений.
  • Doença renal crônica (português brasileiro) ou doença renal crónica (português europeu) é a presença de alterações da estrutura ou funções dos rins, com ou sem alteração da filtração glomerular, por um período maior que 3 meses e com implicações na saúde do indivíduo.Ateriormente utilizava-se o termo insuficiência renal crônica, definida como a perda da função dos rins de forma progressiva e irreversível. É comum usar a filtração glomerular como sinônimo de função renal, dessa forma a insuficiência renal crônica também era considerada como queda progressiva e irreversível da filtração glomerular, ou seja, da capacidade do rim de excretar substâncias do organismo. A filtração glomerular é mensurada através da taxa de filtração glomerular, sendo assim, a insuficiência renal crônica era sinônimo de redução da taxa de filtração glomerular. O termo doença renal crônica é mais abrangente que insuficiência renal crônica, pois considera todos os pacientes com alguma lesão renal, independente da taxa de filtração glomerular. Por exemplo, considere um paciente com diabetes mellitus e lesão renal em fase inicial (microalbuminúria), porém sem alteração da taxa de filtração glomerular. Se classificarmos o paciente somente pela filtração glomerular, o mesmo não tem insuficiência renal crônica, pois a taxa de filtração glomerular ainda está normal. Entretanto, pode-se dizer que ele possui doença renal crônica (microalbuminúria devido ao diabetes), mas sem alteração da filtração glomerular, em outras palavras, o paciente tem lesão renal mas os rins ainda não estão "insuficientes".
  • Si definisce malattia renale cronica (MRC) ogni condizione patologica che interessi il rene e che possa provocare perdita progressiva e completa della funzione renale o complicanze derivanti dalla ridotta funzione renale. La malattia renale cronica si definisce anche come presenza di danno renale, evidenziato da particolari reperti laboratoristici, strumentali o anatomo-patologici, o ridotta funzionalità renale che perduri da almeno 3 mesi, indipendentemente dalla patologia di base. La naturale conseguenza della MRC è rappresentata dall'insufficienza renale cronica (IRC), ossia dalla perdita progressiva e irreversibile della funzione renale. Nei suoi stadi più avanzati (dal terzo in poi, secondo la stadiazione K-DOQI) la malattia renale cronica si identifica con l'insufficienza renale cronica, cioè con la riduzione della funzione di filtrazione dei reni, quantificabile con la clearance della creatinina o con varie formule che stimano la velocità di filtrazione glomerulare. La perdita completa della funzione renale rende necessario un trattamento sostitutivo, rappresentato dalla dialisi o dal trapianto.
  • Gagal ginjal kronis (bahasa Inggris: chronic kidney disease, CKD) adalah proses kerusakan pada ginjal dengan rentang waktu lebih dari 3 bulan. CKD dapat menimbulkan simtoma berupa laju filtrasi glomerular di bawah 60 mL/men/1.73 m2, atau di atas nilai tersebut namun disertai dengan kelainan sedimen urin. Adanya batu ginjal juga dapat menjadi indikasi CKD pada penderita kelainan bawaan seperti hiperoksaluria dan sistinuria.Gejala-gejala dari fungsi ginjal memburuk yang tidak spesifik, dan mungkin termasuk perasaan kurang sehat dan mengalami nafsu makan berkurang. Seringkali, penyakit ginjal kronis didiagnosis sebagai hasil dari skrining dari orang yang dikenal berada di risiko masalah ginjal, seperti yang dengan tekanan darah tinggi atau diabetes dan mereka yang memiliki hubungan darah dengan penyakit ginjal kronis. Penyakit ginjal kronis juga dapat diidentifikasi ketika itu mengarah ke salah satu komplikasi yang diakui, seperti penyakit kardiovaskuler, anemia atau perikarditis Penyakit ginjal kronis diidentifikasi oleh tes darah untuk kreatinin. Tingginya tingkat kreatinin menunjukkan jatuh laju filtrasi glomerulus dan sebagai akibat penurunan kemampuan ginjal mengekskresikan produk limbah. Kadar kreatinin mungkin normal pada tahap awal CKD, dan kondisi tersebut ditemukan jika urine (pengujian sampel urin) menunjukkan bahwa ginjal adalah memungkinkan hilangnya protein atau sel darah merah ke dalam urin. Untuk menyelidiki penyebab kerusakan ginjal, berbagai bentuk pencitraan medis, tes darah dan sering ginjal biopsi (menghapus sampel kecil jaringan ginjal) bekerja untuk mencari tahu apakah ada sebab reversibel untuk kerusakan ginjal . pedoman profesional terbaru mengklasifikasikan tingkat keparahan penyakit ginjal kronis dalam lima tahap, dengan tahap 1 yang paling ringan dan biasanya menyebabkan sedikit gejala dan tahap 5 menjadi penyakit yang parah dengan harapan hidup yang buruk jika tidak diobati . 'Stadium akhir penyakit ginjal (ESRD ), Tahap 5 CKD juga disebut gagal ginjal kronis (CKF) 'atau kegagalan kronis ginjal (CRF). Tidak ada pengobatan khusus untuk memperlambat tegas menunjukkan memburuknya penyakit ginjal kronis. Jika ada penyebab yang mendasari untuk CKD, seperti vaskulitis, ini dapat diobati secara langsung dengan pengobatan bertujuan untuk memperlambat kerusakan. Pada tahap yang lebih maju, pengobatan mungkin diperlukan untuk anemia dan penyakit tulang. CKD parah memerlukan salah satu bentuk terapi penggantian ginjal, ini mungkin merupakan bentuk dialisis, tetapi idealnya merupakan transplantasi ginjal .
  • 慢性腎不全(まんせいじんふぜん、英: Chronic renal failure)は、慢性に生じた腎不全。
  • Хроничната бъбречна недостатъчност (на латински: Insufficientia renalis chronica) е състояние на нарушени бъбречни функции - отделителна, регулираща и инкреторна . Според тежестта на състоянието, хроничната бъбречна недостатъчност бива от различна степен, от най-лека (1-ва) до крайна (5-та) степен, зависеща от хемодиализа. Времето между установяване на проблема и началото на лечение е от кардинална значимост и определя до голяма степен обратимостта на повредите върху отделителната система.
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  • L’insuffisance rénale chronique se caractérise par une altération irréversible du système de filtration glomérulaire, de la fonction tubulaire et endocrine des reins. On constate une destruction du parenchyme rénal puis des anomalies métaboliques, hormonales et cliniques définissant le syndrome urémique.
  • 요독증(尿毒症)은 신부전에 수반하는 질환의 명칭으로, 특히 신장의 기능 부전으로 인한 질소를 함유한 노폐물에 의한 경우를 말한다.간부전일 때, 통상 소변을 통해서 배출되는 요소와 다른 노폐물들이 혈액에 계속 보존된다. 초기 증상으로는 식욕이 감퇴하고 무기력해지며, 말기에는 정신력이 줄어들고 혼수상태에 이를 수 있다. 다른 증상으로는 피로, 어지러움증, 구토, 오한, 골통(bone pain), 가려움, 숨가쁨, 발작 등이 있다.
  • La insuficiència renal crònica és una síndrome caracteritzada per una pèrdua progressiva del filtrat glomerular i generalment irreversible. Quan es dóna urèmia ja és una insuficiència en estat terminal i només pot ser revertida mitjançant el trasplantament renal essent insuficient la diàlisi.
  • Хрони́ческая боле́знь по́чек (англ. chronic kidney disease, сокр. ХБП) — повреждение почек либо снижение их функции в течение 3 месяцев и более. Заболевание классифицируется на 5 стадий, которые различаются по тактике ведения больного и риску развития терминальной почечной недостаточности и сердечно-сосудистых осложнений.
  • 慢性腎不全(まんせいじんふぜん、英: Chronic renal failure)は、慢性に生じた腎不全。
  • Хроничната бъбречна недостатъчност (на латински: Insufficientia renalis chronica) е състояние на нарушени бъбречни функции - отделителна, регулираща и инкреторна . Според тежестта на състоянието, хроничната бъбречна недостатъчност бива от различна степен, от най-лека (1-ва) до крайна (5-та) степен, зависеща от хемодиализа. Времето между установяване на проблема и началото на лечение е от кардинална значимост и определя до голяма степен обратимостта на повредите върху отделителната система.
  • Beim chronischen Nierenversagen (chronische Niereninsuffizienz, chronische Nierenkrankheit) handelt es sich um einen langsamen, über Monate oder Jahre voranschreitenden Verlust der Nierenfunktion.
  • U chronického renálního selhání (CHRI) dochází k postupnému selhávání ledvin (během několika let až desetiletí), jakožto následek širokého spektra systémových onemocnění. Vede k nevratnému poškození ledvin, resp. k zániku nefronů, které s časem narůstá. Množství profiltrované moči, tzv. glomerulární filtrace, postupně klesá, a sice z normálních hodnot 1,5 - 2 ml/s na nízké hodnoty podle závažnosti a stupně poškození, v pokročilých stádiích pod hodnoty 0,25 ml/s.
  • Gagal ginjal kronis (bahasa Inggris: chronic kidney disease, CKD) adalah proses kerusakan pada ginjal dengan rentang waktu lebih dari 3 bulan. CKD dapat menimbulkan simtoma berupa laju filtrasi glomerular di bawah 60 mL/men/1.73 m2, atau di atas nilai tersebut namun disertai dengan kelainan sedimen urin.
  • Doença renal crônica (português brasileiro) ou doença renal crónica (português europeu) é a presença de alterações da estrutura ou funções dos rins, com ou sem alteração da filtração glomerular, por um período maior que 3 meses e com implicações na saúde do indivíduo.Ateriormente utilizava-se o termo insuficiência renal crônica, definida como a perda da função dos rins de forma progressiva e irreversível.
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease (CRD), is a progressive loss in renal function over a period of months or years. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are non-specific, and might include feeling generally unwell and experiencing a reduced appetite.
  • Si definisce malattia renale cronica (MRC) ogni condizione patologica che interessi il rene e che possa provocare perdita progressiva e completa della funzione renale o complicanze derivanti dalla ridotta funzione renale. La malattia renale cronica si definisce anche come presenza di danno renale, evidenziato da particolari reperti laboratoristici, strumentali o anatomo-patologici, o ridotta funzionalità renale che perduri da almeno 3 mesi, indipendentemente dalla patologia di base.
rdfs:label
  • Insuffisance rénale chronique
  • Хронична бъбречна недостатъчност
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Chronické renální selhání
  • Chronisches Nierenversagen
  • Doença renal crônica
  • Enfermedad renal crónica
  • Gagal ginjal kronis
  • Insuficiència renal crònica
  • Malattia renale cronica
  • Przewlekła niewydolność nerek
  • Хроническая болезнь почек
  • 慢性腎不全
  • 요독증
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