L'Histoire du gaz manufacturé se rapporte à la période qui a précédé l'avènement de l'électricité, où les villes furent éclairées et ensuite chauffées par des gaz manufacturés, c'est-à-dire fabriqués par « distillation » dans des usines à gaz ou des cokeries.

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dbpedia-owl:abstract
  • L'Histoire du gaz manufacturé se rapporte à la période qui a précédé l'avènement de l'électricité, où les villes furent éclairées et ensuite chauffées par des gaz manufacturés, c'est-à-dire fabriqués par « distillation » dans des usines à gaz ou des cokeries. Cette période a vu naître les premiers grands groupes énergétiques.Apparus avec la chimie moderne, et les découvertes d'Antoine Lavoisier, les recherches sur les gaz manufacturés initiées par Philippe Lebon, et William Murdoch permirent par la suite l'essor de la carbochimie. Les gaz de synthèse et les opérations modernes de gazéification sont les descendants des opérations réalisées au XIXe siècle pour obtenir les gaz manufacturés.L'électricité devient la principale source d'énergie pour l'éclairage à partir de 1880.À partir de 1920 aux États-Unis, et 1960 en Europe, le gaz naturel remplace le gaz manufacturé, dans la plupart de ses applications fermant de facto l'ère des gaz manufacturés : en France, la dernière usine à gaz, celle de Belfort en Franche-Comté, fermera en 1971.
  • The history of manufactured gas, important for lighting, heating, and cooking purposes throughout most of the nineteenth century and the first half of the 20th century, began with the development of analytical and pneumatic chemistry in the eighteenth century. The manufacturing process for "synthetic fuel gases" (also known as "manufactured fuel gas", "manufactured gas" or simply "gas") typically consisted of the gasification of combustible materials, almost always coal, but also wood and oil. The coal was gasified by heating the coal in enclosed ovens with an oxygen-poor atmosphere. The fuel gases generated were mixtures of many chemical substances, including hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide and ethylene, and could be burnt for heating and lighting purposes. Coal gas, for example, also contains significant quantities of unwanted sulfur and ammonia compounds, as well as heavy hydrocarbons, and so the manufactured fuel gases needed to be purified before they could be used.The first attempts to manufacture fuel gas in a commercial way were made in the period 1795–1805 in France by Philippe Lebon, and in England by William Murdoch. Although precursors can be found, it was these two engineers who elaborated the technology with commercial applications in mind. Frederick Winsor was the key player behind the creation of the first gas utility, the London-based Gas Light and Coke Company, incorporated by royal charter in April 1812.Many other manufactured fuel gas utilities were founded first in England, and then in the rest of Europe and North America in the 1820s. The technology increased in scale. After a period of competition, the business model of the gas industry matured in monopolies, where a single company provided gas in a given zone. The ownership of the companies varied from outright municipal ownership, such as in Manchester, to completely private corporations, such as in London and most North American cities. Gas companies thrived during most of the nineteenth century, usually returning good profits to their shareholders, but were also the subject of many complaints over price.In the second half of the 19th century, the manufactured fuel gas industry diversified out of lighting and into heat and cooking. The threat from electrical light in the later 1870s and 1880s drove this trend strongly. The gas industry did not cede the gas lighting market to electricity immediately, as the invention of the Welsbach mantle in the late 1880s dramatically increased the luminosity of gas flames, and gas remained competitive with electricity. Acetylene was also used from about 1898 for gas cooking and gas lighting (see Carbide lamp) on a smaller scale, although its use too declined with the advent of electric lighting, and LPG for cooking. Other technological developments in the late nineteenth century include the use of water gas and machine stoking, although these were not universally adopted.In the 1890s, pipelines from natural gas fields in Texas and Oklahoma were built to Chicago and other cities, and natural gas was used to supplement manufactured fuel gas supplies, eventually completely displacing it. Gas ceased to be manufactured in North America by 1966 (with the exception of Indianapolis and Honolulu), while it continued in Europe until the 1980s. "Manufactured gas" is again being evaluated as a fuel source, as energy utilities look towards coal gasification once again as a potentially cleaner way of generating power from coal, although nowadays such gases are likely to be called "synthetic natural gas".
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  • Contibel
  • Culross Abbey
  • Destructive distillation
  • Incendie du Ringtheater
  • List of natural gas fields
  • Palais Epstein
  • Solvay Process Company
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  • Exposition universelle, 1855, Charles Baudelaire
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  • Culross Abbey
  • Destructive distillation
  • List of natural gas fields
  • Solvay Process Company
  • Demandez à tout bon Français qui lit tous les jours son journal dans son estaminet ce qu’il entend par progrès, il répondra que c’est la vapeur, l’électricité et l’éclairage au gaz
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  • Destructive distillation
  • List of natural gas fields
  • Solvay Process Company
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  • L'Histoire du gaz manufacturé se rapporte à la période qui a précédé l'avènement de l'électricité, où les villes furent éclairées et ensuite chauffées par des gaz manufacturés, c'est-à-dire fabriqués par « distillation » dans des usines à gaz ou des cokeries.
  • The history of manufactured gas, important for lighting, heating, and cooking purposes throughout most of the nineteenth century and the first half of the 20th century, began with the development of analytical and pneumatic chemistry in the eighteenth century. The manufacturing process for "synthetic fuel gases" (also known as "manufactured fuel gas", "manufactured gas" or simply "gas") typically consisted of the gasification of combustible materials, almost always coal, but also wood and oil.
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  • Histoire du gaz manufacturé
  • History of manufactured gas
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