La Tunisie, en 1956, devient un pays indépendant après avoir connu le protectorat français de 1881 à 1956. Son premier président de la République est Habib Bourguiba, remplacé en 1987 par Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali. Ce dernier s'enfuit le 14 janvier 2011 sous la pression d'une révolte populaire, rapidement devenue révolution.↑ (fr) Jean-François Martin, Histoire de la Tunisie contemporaine. De Ferry à Bourguiba. 1881-1956, éd. L'Harmattan, Paris, 2003, p. 7

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  • La Tunisie, en 1956, devient un pays indépendant après avoir connu le protectorat français de 1881 à 1956. Son premier président de la République est Habib Bourguiba, remplacé en 1987 par Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali. Ce dernier s'enfuit le 14 janvier 2011 sous la pression d'une révolte populaire, rapidement devenue révolution.
  • Номинально Египет вышел из Халифата после захвата страны Фатимидами.
  • In its modern history, Tunisia has become a sovereign republic, called the al-Jumhuriyyah at-Tunisiyyah. Tunisia has over ten million citizens, almost all of Arab-Berber descent. The Mediterranean Sea is to the north and east, Libya to the southeast, and Algeria to the west. Tunis is the capital and the largest city (over 800,000); it is located near the ancient site of the city of Carthage. During this time, it has been led by two presidents, who have had a significant impact on Tunisian society.Its first modern leader, President Habib Bourguiba brought to the office hard-won political experience, after many decades of service among the leadership of the independence movement. As the major figure of the Neo-Destour Party, he was instrumental in obtaining full independence for Tunisia in 1956. He dominated the government until his removal in 1987. During his years in office, his accomplishments included: a law reform, economic policies which detoured briefly in a socialist direction, a moderate but steady improvement in standard of living, and a foreign policy which retained an independent approach while maintaining trade and economic connections to the west.Ben Ali became President of the Republic in 1987, and kept power until he was forced to leave in 2011. His economic policies have emphasized a market orientation. His attempt at reapproachment with Islamist groups did not meet expectations. The ruling party was reorganized. Under his leadership Tunisia's economy continued to perform at a pace which yielded a moderate but overall steady rate of growth.
  • La Tunisia diviene indipendente nel 1956, alla fine dell'occupazione francese (1881-1956).Il suo primo presidente della Repubblica è Habib Bourguiba, sostituito nel 1987 da Zine-el Abidine Ben Ali. Quest'ultimo abbandona il Paese il 14 gennaio 2011 in seguito alla rivoluzione del Gelsomino.
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  • La Tunisie, en 1956, devient un pays indépendant après avoir connu le protectorat français de 1881 à 1956. Son premier président de la République est Habib Bourguiba, remplacé en 1987 par Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali. Ce dernier s'enfuit le 14 janvier 2011 sous la pression d'une révolte populaire, rapidement devenue révolution.↑ (fr) Jean-François Martin, Histoire de la Tunisie contemporaine. De Ferry à Bourguiba. 1881-1956, éd. L'Harmattan, Paris, 2003, p. 7
  • Номинально Египет вышел из Халифата после захвата страны Фатимидами.
  • La Tunisia diviene indipendente nel 1956, alla fine dell'occupazione francese (1881-1956).Il suo primo presidente della Repubblica è Habib Bourguiba, sostituito nel 1987 da Zine-el Abidine Ben Ali. Quest'ultimo abbandona il Paese il 14 gennaio 2011 in seguito alla rivoluzione del Gelsomino.
  • In its modern history, Tunisia has become a sovereign republic, called the al-Jumhuriyyah at-Tunisiyyah. Tunisia has over ten million citizens, almost all of Arab-Berber descent. The Mediterranean Sea is to the north and east, Libya to the southeast, and Algeria to the west. Tunis is the capital and the largest city (over 800,000); it is located near the ancient site of the city of Carthage.
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  • Histoire de la Tunisie depuis 1956
  • Египет от распада Халифата до Османской империи
  • History of modern Tunisia
  • Storia della Tunisia dal 1956
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