La Caroline du Sud fut peuplée par des colons français Huguenots dès 1562 lors de la création de la Floride française. Ils fondèrent Charlesfort, puis Fort Caroline, pour défendre cette colonie éphémère (1562-1565).

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  • La Caroline du Sud fut peuplée par des colons français Huguenots dès 1562 lors de la création de la Floride française. Ils fondèrent Charlesfort, puis Fort Caroline, pour défendre cette colonie éphémère (1562-1565). La Caroline est créée dès 1663 par des émigrés de la Barbade, à la mort d'Olivier Cromwell, lors de la restauration catholique, le roi Charles II d'Angleterre accordant une charte à ses partisans qui fondent une Compagnie privée, dont le premier gouverneur arrive en 1664, mais qui végète. En 1704 des huguenots s'installent plus loin. Leurs terres sont divisées en deux en 1711. À partir de 1710, la Caroline du Nord, qui n'a 6 000 habitants, commence à grandir, avec une population de 43 000 en 1749, soit sept fois plus, dont beaucoup d'Écossais chassés par les Highland Clearancesans. Entre temps, la rébellion de Culpepper en 1677, et la rébellion de Quaker-led-Cary en 1708 et la guerre indienne de Tuscarora entre 1711 et 1713, ou de nombreux raids de piraterie déchirent la colonie, comme c'est aussi le cas en Virginie. À cause de ces tensions religieuses et sociales, l'Angleterre supprime les chartes dès 1686 pour transformer la Nouvelle-Angleterre en dominion, administrée par un gouverneur nommé et révocable par le roi. Mais les assemblées continuent.La Caroline est séparée en deux en 1729 après la première grande révolte noire. Les protestants vont au Nord. La Caroline du Sud aux origines irlando-barbadaise depuis 1664, fut l'une des premières à pratiquer la traite des esclaves indiens. Dès 1720 près de 65 % de la population était constituée d'esclaves. C'est même 90 % en 1728, quand les 28 000 Noirs de l'ethnie Gullah se révoltent et menacent de tuer les 3 000 blancs. Repliés au Fort Antoine, ils sont repris par des troupes de Jamaïque. Les évadés sont cachés dans les villages séminoles à qui ils transmettent la connaissance du riz de Sierra Leone. Nouvelle révolte noire en 1739, la rébellion de Stono (incendie de sept plantations, meurtre de 20 blancs et fuite du gouverneur William Bull), puis en 1741 . Les blancs embauchent des vigiles à tour de bras. Une loi de la Caroline du Sud prononce une amende de 100 livres sterling contre le maître qui apprend à lire à ses esclaves.Vers 1750, la guerre contre les esclaves est déjà gagnée. Les deux Carolines comptent 100 000 habitants, autant que la Virginie. La traite passe par l'île africaine de Bunce, en Sierra Leone, où la firme anglaise Grand, Sargent and Oswald achète des esclaves de l'ethnie Gullah, celle d'Oncle Bens, pour approvisionner le plus riche planteur en riz et futur représentant de la colonie Henry Laurens, qui exporte du bois (acheté au Piémont des Appalaches en échange de riz) par Charleston, devenu le plus grand port du Sud. Les plantations de riz, introduites par les noirs évadés vers 1730, rivalisent avec celles de tabac, et nourrissent les nombreux colons du Piémont des Appalaches. Certains immigrants d'origine irlandaise et allemande préfèrent aller vers le nord-ouest, en Virginie, dans la vallée de Shenandoah.
  • South Carolina is one of the 13 original colonies of the United States. European exploration of the area began in April 1540, with the Hernando de Soto expedition, which led to the introduction of European diseases that decimated the local Indian population. The colony was founded in 1663. The English colony of the Province of Carolina was started in Charleston in 1670, with wealthy planters and their slaves, coming from the British Caribbean colony of Barbados. Colonists overthrew the proprietors after the Yamasee War, pushing back the American Indians in 1715-1717. In 1719 the colony was officially made a crown colony, and North Carolina was split off and made into a separate colony in 1729.South Carolina banded together with the other colonies to oppose British taxation in the Stamp Act Crisis of 1765, and played a major role in resisting Britain. It became independent in March 1776 and joined the United States of America. The Revolution was bloody and hard fought in 1780-81, as the British invaded, captured the American army and were finally driven out.The cotton gin made the rich soil of the lowlands very profitable for plantations operated by black slaves. The hilly upland areas, with few slaves, were much poorer and a regional conflict underlay the political system. With outspoken leaders such as John C. Calhoun, the state vied with Virginia as the dominant political and social force in the South. It fought federal tariffs in the 1830s and demanded that its rights to practice slavery be recognized in the territories. With the 1860 election of Republicans under Abraham Lincoln, who vowed to prevent slavery's expansion, the voters demanded secession. In December 1860, the state seceded from the Union and in February 1861 it joined the new Confederate States of America.In April 1861 the American Civil War began when Confederate forces attacked the American fort at Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor. The Civil War proved devastating to the whites, but freed the blacks from slavery. From 1865 to 1877, South Carolina underwent Reconstruction. Congress shut down the civilian government in 1867, put the Army in charge, gave Freedmen (freed slaves) the vote and prevented ex-Confederates from holding office. A Republican legislature supported by Freedmen, northern Carpetbaggers and white Southern Scalawags created and funded a public school system, and created social welfare institutions. The constitution they passed was kept nearly unaltered for 27 years, and most legislation passed during the Reconstruction years lasted longer than that. By 1877 the white conservatives, called "Redeemers" had regained political power. In the 1880s Jim Crow laws were passed that were especially severe in the state, to create public segregation and control movement of African American laborers. After 1890 almost all blacks lost their vote, not to regain it until 1965.The Civil War ruined the economy, making it one of the two or three poorest states for the next century. Educational levels were low as public schools were underfunded, especially for African Americans. Most people lived on small farms and grew cotton. The more affluent were landowners, who subdivided the land into farms operated by tenant farmers or sharecroppers, along with land operated by the owner using hired labor. Gradually more industry moved into the Piedmont area, with textile factories that turned the state's raw cotton into yarn and cloth for sale on the international market. Wave after wave of revivals made most people quite religious; most people, white and black alike, were Baptists.Politically the state was part of the Solid South. Because African Americans were disfranchised by a new state constitution at the end of the nineteenth century, no black officials were elected between 1900 and the late 1960s. Many left the state to go to northern cities during the Great Migration after 1910. Whites rigidly enforced segregation in the Jim Crow era, limiting African Americans' chances for education, representation and free public movement. The federal Civil Rights laws of the 1960s ended segregation and protected the voting rights of African Americans. The blacks had been affiliated with the Republican Party, but after 1964 became intensely loyal Democrats, while most whites moved in the opposite direction.The cotton regime ended by the 1950s. As factories were built across the state, the great majority of farmers left agriculture. Service industries, such as tourism, education and medical care, grew rapidly, as the textile factories faded after 1970. By 2000 the white majority of South Carolina voted solidly Republican in presidential elections, but state and local government elections were contested by the two parties. The population continued to grow, reaching 4 million in 2000, as coast areas became prime locations for tourists and retirees. The poverty rate of 13.5% is slightly worse than the national average of 11.7%.
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  • La Caroline du Sud fut peuplée par des colons français Huguenots dès 1562 lors de la création de la Floride française. Ils fondèrent Charlesfort, puis Fort Caroline, pour défendre cette colonie éphémère (1562-1565).
  • South Carolina is one of the 13 original colonies of the United States. European exploration of the area began in April 1540, with the Hernando de Soto expedition, which led to the introduction of European diseases that decimated the local Indian population. The colony was founded in 1663. The English colony of the Province of Carolina was started in Charleston in 1670, with wealthy planters and their slaves, coming from the British Caribbean colony of Barbados.
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  • Histoire de la Caroline du Sud
  • History of South Carolina
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