Un génocide est l'extermination physique, intentionnelle, systématique et programmée d'une population ou d'une partie d'une population en raison de ses origines ethniques, religieuses ou sociales.↑ Définition donnée par le droit, d'après Le Robert, dictionnaire, édition de 1993.

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dbpedia-owl:abstract
  • Un génocide est l'extermination physique, intentionnelle, systématique et programmée d'une population ou d'une partie d'une population en raison de ses origines ethniques, religieuses ou sociales.
  • Геноци́д (от греч. γένος — род, племя и лат. caedo — убиваю) — действия, совершаемые с намерением уничтожить, полностью или частично, какую-либо национальную, этническую, расовую или религиозную группу как таковую путём: убийства членов этой группы; причинения тяжкого вреда их здоровью; мер, рассчитанных на предотвращение деторождения в такой группе; изъятия детей из семьи; предумышленного создания жизненных условий, рассчитанных на полное или частичное физическое уничтожение этой группы.С 1948 года геноцид признаётся в ООН международным преступлением.В истории человечества можно найти немало случаев геноцида, начиная с древнейших времён и вплоть до наших дней. Особенно это характерно для истребительных войн и опустошительных нашествий, походов завоевателей, внутренних этнических и религиозных столкновений, для образования колониальных империй европейских держав.
  • Genozidioa etnia, nazionalitate, arraza, erlijio, politika eta beste arrazoiengatik pertsona talde bat masiboki eta apropos desagerraraztea da. Hitza Raphael Lemkin judutar poloniarrak asmatu zuen 1944ean, grekoko genos (familia, tribu edo erraza) eta latineko -cideretik (erahil) sustraietatik. 1951ean nazioarteko legeek genozidioa definitu eta debekatu zuten.Genozidiorako bide asko erabili izan dira; gosez hiltzen utzi, haurdun geratzen diren emakumeak haurrak galtzera behartu, etab. Nazio Batuek genozidioa krimentzat hartu zuten (1948), Nurenbergeko epaien ondoren.Historia osoan ez da ezagutu XX. mendean adinako genozidiorik. Milioika heriotza horiek guztiak ez dira gerraren ondoriozkoak izan, arraza, etnia, erlijio edo politika talde desberdinen aurkako hilketa berariazkoak eta sistematikoak eraginak baizik. XX. mendeko lehen genozidio jendetsua 1915 eta 1923 bitartean gertatu zen: turkiar gobernuak 600.000-1.500.000 armeniar beren etxeetatik egotzi edo sarraskitu zituen. Hala ere, azkenaldiko genozidio kasurik zoritxarrekoena Alemaniak 1930 eta 1940 artean Europako juduak desagerrarazteko egin zuena izan zen. 1945ean Bigarren Mundu Gerra amaitzerako, 12 milioi pertsona hil zituzten naziek; horietatik sei milioi juduak ziren, eta gainerakoak ijitoak, homosexualak edota eslaviarrak. Urte hartan bertan, Nurenbergeko epaitegiak holokaustoaren arduradunak epaitu zituen, eta gizabanakoaren erantzukizun printzipioa arautu zuen.1946an Nazio Batuen Batzar Nagusiak genozidioa baztertzeko hitzarmena idatzi zuen, eta 1948an onartu zen. Bertako ataletan, besteren artean hauek hitzartu zituzten: genozidioa desagertzeko nazioarteko lankidetza behar dela; gerratik kanpo gertatzen den genozidioa ere krimena dela, baina ez krimen politikoak direnak; erruduntzat jotzen direnek ez dutela estradiziorako immunitaterik; eta errudunak genozidioa gertatutako estatuan bertan epaituko direla, edo eskumena duen nazioarteko epaitegi batek epaituko dituela.
  • Ein Völkermord oder Genozid ist seit der Konvention über die Verhütung und Bestrafung des Völkermordes von 1948 ein Straftatbestand im Völkerstrafrecht, der nicht verjährt.Der Begriff Genozid setzt sich zusammen aus dem griechischen Wort γένος (génos = „Herkunft, Abstammung, Geschlecht, Rasse“; im weiteren Sinne auch „das Volk“) sowie dem lateinischen caedere „morden, metzeln“.Gekennzeichnet ist er durch die spezielle Absicht, auf direkte oder indirekte Weise Vorlage:". Daher wird er auch als einzigartiges Verbrechen, als Verbrechen der Verbrechen (engl. crime of crimes) oder als das schlimmste Verbrechen im Völkerstrafrecht bezeichnet.Die auf Raphael Lemkin zurückgehende rechtliche Definition dient auch in der Wissenschaft als Definition des Begriffs Völkermord. Seit dem Beschluss durch die Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen wurde die Bestrafung von Völkermord auch in verschiedenen nationalen Rechtsordnungen ausdrücklich verankert.
  • Genosida atau genosid adalah sebuah pembantaian besar-besaran secara sistematis terhadap satu suku bangsa atau kelompok dengan maksud memusnahkan (membuat punah) bangsa tersebut. Kata ini pertama kali digunakan oleh seorang ahli hukum Polandia, Raphael Lemkin, pada tahun 1944 dalam bukunya Axis Rule in Occupied Europe yang diterbitkan di Amerika Serikat. Kata ini diambil dari bahasa Yunani γένος genos ('ras', 'bangsa' atau 'rakyat') dan bahasa Latin caedere ('pembunuhan').Genosida merupakan satu dari empat pelanggaran HAM berat yang berada dalam yurisdiksi International Criminal Court. Pelanggaran HAM berat lainnya ialah kejahatan terhadap kemanusiaan, kejahatan perang, dan kejahatan Agresi. Menurut Statuta Roma dan Undang-Undang no. 26 tahun 2000 tentang Pengadilan HAM, genosida ialah Perbuatan yang dilakukan dengan maksud untuk menghancurkan atau memusnahkan seluruh atau sebagian kelompok bangsa, ras, kelompok etnis, kelompok agama dengan cara membunuh anggota kelompok; mengakibatkan penderitaan fisik atau mental yang berat terhadap anggota kelompok; menciptakan kondisi kehidupan kelompok yang menciptakan kemusnahan secara fisik sebagian atau seluruhnya; melakukan tindakan mencegah kelahiran dalam kelompok; memindahkan secara paksa anak-anak dalam kelompok ke kelompok lain.Ada pula istilah genosida budaya yang berarti pembunuhan peradaban dengan melarang penggunaan bahasa dari suatu kelompok atau suku, mengubah atau menghancurkan sejarahnya atau menghancurkan simbol-simbol peradabannya.
  • A népirtás vagy genocídium bizonyos bűncselekményeknek valamely nemzeti, etnikai, faji vagy vallási csoport teljes vagy részleges megsemmisítésének szándékával történő elkövetését jelenti.
  • Genocídio - tem sido definido como o assassinato deliberado de pessoas motivado por diferenças étnicas, nacionais, raciais, religiosas e (por vezes) políticas. Há algum desacordo, entre os diversos autores, quanto ao facto de se designar ou não como genocídio os assassinatos em massa por motivos políticos (ver: engenharia social). O genocídio é um tipo de limpeza étnica.Genocídio é o extermínio ou a desintegração de uma comunidade pelo emprego deliberado da força, por motivos raciais, religiosos ou políticos, entre outros. Para a ONU, esse tipo de agressão configura-se como delito contra a humanidadeO termo genocídio foi criado por Raphael Lemkin, um judeu polaco, em 1944, juntando a raiz grega génos (família, tribo ou raça) e -caedere (Latim - matar). Com o advento do genocídio dos judeus pelo regime nazi, o Holocausto, Lemkin fez campanha pela criação de leis internacionais, que definissem e punissem o genocídio. Esta pretensão tornou-se realidade em 1951, com a Convenção para a prevenção e repressão do crime de genocídio.O genocídio foi, na época da colonização européia na América Latina e na África, largamente utilizado para que com o extermínio dos povos indígenas, se tornasse mais fácil para a Europa a escravização daqueles que lá habitavam.
  • Soykırım, ırk, canlı türü, siyasal görüş, din, sosyal durum ya da başka herhangi bir ayırıcı özellikleri ile diğerlerinden ayırt edilebilen bir topluluk veya toplulukların bireylerinin, yok edicilerin çıkarları doğrultusunda önemli sayıda ve düzenli biçimde yok edilmeleridir. Tam tanımı soykırım konusunda çalışan akademisyenler arasında değişim gösterse de, 1948’de Birleşmiş Milletler Soykırım Suçunun Engellenmesi ve Cezalandırılması Sözleşmesi’nde (SSECS) hukuksal bir tanımı bulunmaktadır. Sözleşmenin 2. maddesi soykırımı “ulusal, etnik, ırksal ve dinsel bir grubun bütününün ya da bir bölümünün yok edilmesi niyetiyle girişilen şu hareketlerden herhangi biridir: grubun üyelerinin öldürülmesi; grubun üyelerine ciddi bedensel ya da zihinsel hasar verilmesi; grubun yaşam koşullarının bunun grubun bütününe ya da bir kısmına getireceği fiziksel yıkım hesaplanarak kasti olarak bozulması; grup içinde doğumları engelleyecek yöntemlerin uygulanması; [ve] çocukların zorla bir gruptan alınıp bir diğerine verilmesi.” şeklinde tanımlar.SSECS’nin giriş bölümünde soykırım olaylarının tarih boyunca yaşandığı fakat Birleşmiş Milletler’in Raphael Lemkin bu terimi oluşturana ve Nürnberg mahkemelerinde Holokost’un failleri yargılanana kadar soykırım suçunu uluslararası hukuk altında tanımlayan SSECS’ye karar vermemiş olduğu söyleniyor.SSECS’nin yürürlüğe girmesi ile sözleşmenin uygulanmasıyla yapılan ilk yargılama arasında 40 yıllık bir boşluk vardır. Şimdiye dek olan tüm uluslararası soykırım yargılamaları, Ruanda Soykırımı için olan, Bosna Soykırımı için olan yargılamalar, bu olaylara özel mahkemelerde yapılmıştır. Uluslararası Ceza Mahkemesi 2002’de kurulmuştur ve sözleşmeye taraf olan devletlerin vatandaşlarını yargılama hakkı vardır, ama henüz kimse yargılanmamıştır.SSECS’nin 1951 Ocak’ında yürürlüğe girmesinden itibaren yaklaşık 80 Birleşmiş Milletler üyesi devlet SSECS’nin hükümleriyle uyum sağlayan yasalar çıkardılar, ve bazı soykırım failleri bu tür yerel yasalarla yargılanıp suçlu bulundu. Alman mahkemeleri tarafından suçlu bulunan Nikola Jorgic buna örnektir.Gregory Stanton gibi soykırım üzerine çalışan akademisyenler soykırımdan önce, soykırım sırasında ve soykırımın ardından ortaya çıkan, -kurban grubun dehümanizasyonu, soykırımcı grupların güçlü bir şekilde örgütlenmesi ve faillerin soykırımı inkar etmesi gibi- durum ve hareketlerin farkedilebileceğini ve soykırım yapılmadan soykırımı durdurmak için harekete geçilebileceğini söylüyorlar. Dirk Moses gibi bu görüşün eleştirmenleri bunun gerçekçi olmadığını söylemekte ve örneğin “Darfur bölgede çıkarları olan büyük güçler için uygun olduğunda bitecektir.” demektedir.Avustralya'nın Tasmanya adasında Tasmanya Soykırımının bir parçası olan ve 1828-1832 yılları arasında yapılan Kara Savaş kaydedilen ilk modern soykırım örneğidir.
  • Genocide is the systematic destruction of all or part of a racial, ethnic, religious or national group. What constitutes enough of a "part" to qualify as genocide has been subject to much debate by legal scholars. While a precise definition varies among genocide scholars, a legal definition is found in the 1948 United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG). Article 2 of this convention defines genocide as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life, calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group."Raphael Lemkin, in his work Axis Rule in Occupied Europe (1944), coined the term "genocide" by combining Greek genos (γένος), "race, people" and Latin cīdere "to kill".Lemkin defined genocide as follows:"Generally speaking, genocide does not necessarily mean the immediate destruction of a nation, except when accomplished by mass killings of all members of a nation. It is intended rather to signify a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves. The objectives of such a plan would be the disintegration of the political and social institutions, of culture, language, national feelings, religion, and the economic existence of national groups, and the destruction of the personal security, liberty, health, dignity, and even the lives of the individuals belonging to such groups."The preamble to the CPPCG states that instances of genocide have taken place throughout history, but it was not until Raphael Lemkin coined the term and the prosecution of perpetrators of the Holocaust at the Nuremberg trials that the United Nations agreed to the CPPCG which defined the crime of genocide under international law.During a video interview with Raphael Lemkin, the interviewer asked him about how he came to be interested in this genocide. He replied; "I became interested in genocide because it happened so many times. It happened to the Armenians, then after the Armenians, Hitler took action."Lemkin was also a close relative of genocide victims; he lost 49 of his relatives to the Holocaust. However, his work on defining genocide as a crime dates back to 1933, and it was prompted by the Simele massacre in Iraq.There was a gap of more than forty years between the CPPCG coming into force and the first prosecution under the provisions of the treaty. To date all international prosecutions of genocide, the Rwandan Genocide and the Srebrenica Genocide, have been by ad hoc international tribunals. The International Criminal Court came into existence in 2002 and it has the authority to try people from the states that have signed the treaty, but to date it has not tried anyone.Since the CPPCG came into effect in January 1951 about 80 member states of the United Nations have passed legislation that incorporates the provisions of the CPPCG into their domestic law, and some perpetrators of genocide have been found guilty under such municipal laws, such as Nikola Jorgic, who was found guilty of genocide in Bosnia by a German court (Jorgic v. Germany).Critics of the CPPCG point to the narrow definition of the groups that are protected under the treaty, particularly the lack of protection for political groups for what has been termed politicide (politicide is included as genocide under some municipal jurisdictions). One of the problems was that until there was a body of case law from prosecutions, the precise definition of what the treaty meant had not been tested in court, for example, what precisely does the term "in part" mean? As more perpetrators are tried under international tribunals and municipal court cases, a body of legal arguments and legal interpretations are helping to address these issues.The exclusion of political groups and politically motivated violence from the international definition of genocide is particularly controversial. The reason for this exclusion is because a number of UN member nations insisted on it when the Genocide Convention was being drafted in 1948. They argued that political groups are too vaguely defined, as well as temporary and unstable. They further held that international law should not seek to regulate or limit political conflicts, since that would give the UN too much power to interfere in the internal affairs of sovereign nations. In the years since then, critics have argued that the exclusion of political groups from the definition, as well as the lack of a specific reference to the destruction of a social group through the forcible removal of a population, was designed to protect the Soviet Union and the Western Allies from possible accusations of genocide in the wake of World War II.Another criticism of the CPPCG is that when its provisions have been invoked by the United Nations Security Council, they have only been invoked to punish those who have already committed genocide and have left a paper trail. It was this criticism that led to the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1674 by the United Nations Security Council on 28 April 2006 which commits the Council to action to protect civilians in armed conflict and to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. To supplement this proactive stance, the international community at the UN adopted the Responsibility to Protect at the 2005 World Summit, which states that governments and states have the primary responsibility of preventing and deterring these four high crimes from impacting their own populations. Should the government of any country manifestly fail in this responsibility, the UN has resolved to act collectively to stop the immediate manifestations of these crimes.Genocide scholars such as Gregory Stanton have postulated that conditions and acts that often occur before, during, and after genocide—such as dehumanization of victim groups, strong organization of genocidal groups, and denial of genocide by its perpetrators—can be identified and actions taken to stop genocides before they happen. Critics of this approach such as Dirk Moses assert that this is unrealistic and that, for example, "Darfur will end when it suits the great powers that have a stake in the region".Others, notably Adams’ “Genocides Roots in the Overpopulation Cycle,” holds that genocide occurs as unsustainable civilizations decline, suffering shocks that accompany economic earthquakes. “Hungry, frightened, scared masses demand survival and reassurance. Opportunistic leaders may now benefit by sacrificing 'others, outsiders' for the sake of supporters in leaders’ quests for power and influence.” Once overwhelming pains precondition our human overpopulation-violent psychology, genocidal explosions await what Adams called the “holocaustic spark.”
  • Ludobójstwo – zbrodnia przeciwko ludzkości, obejmująca celowe wyniszczanie całych lub części narodów, grup etnicznych, religijnych lub rasowych, zarówno poprzez fizyczne zabójstwa członków grupy, jak i kontrolę urodzin, przymusowe odbieranie dzieci czy stworzenie warunków życia obliczonych na fizyczne wyniszczenie.
  • ジェノサイド(英: genocide)は、1944年、ユダヤ系ポーランド人法律家のラファエル・レムキンによって創られた造語であり(後述)、一つの人種・民族・国家・宗教などの構成員に対する抹消行為をさす。元々アルメニア人虐殺やナチス・ドイツのユダヤ人虐殺(ホロコースト)に対して使われていたことから、一般的には「大量虐殺」の意味で使われるが、国外強制退去による国内の民族浄化、あるいは異民族、異文化・異宗教に対する強制的な同化政策による文化抹消、また国家が不要あるいは望ましくないと見なした集団に対する断種手術の強要あるいは隔離行為など、あくまでも特定の集団等の抹消行為を指し、物理的な全殺戮のみを意味するわけではない。また、これを目的とした行為は集団殺戮行為も含め、国連のジェノサイド条約によって禁止されており、現在では、集団殺害罪は国際法上の犯罪として確立している。
  • Hom anomena genocidi el fet delictiu d'exterminar un col·lectiu humà, amb la intenció de fer desaparèixer el grup del què forma part, independentment que el lligam que uneix els seus membres sigui ètnic, nacional, religiós, polític o de qualsevol altre tipus. Segons el sociòleg i historiador Michael Mann és el grau més extrem de violència intergrupal i dels processos de neteja ètnica.
  • Genocida (latinsky genocidium) je zločin proti lidskosti definovaný mezinárodním trestním právem jako „úmyslné a systematické zničení, celé nebo části, etnické, rasové, náboženské nebo národnostní skupiny“ ačkoliv co znamená „část“ je subjektem debaty právníků.
  • El genocidio es un delito internacional que comprende «cualquiera de los actos perpetrados con la intención de destruir, total o parcialmente, a un grupo nacional, étnico, racial o religioso como tal» estos actos comprenden la «matanza y lesión grave a la integridad física o mental de los miembros del grupo, sometimiento intencional del grupo a condiciones de existencia que hayan de acarrear su destrucción física, total o parcial, medidas destinadas a impedir nacimientos en el seno del grupo, traslado por la fuerza de niños del grupo a otro grupo».El término fue acuñado y definido por primera vez por el jurista judeo-polaco Raphael Lemkin, que en 1939 había huido de la persecución nazi y encontrado asilo en Estados Unidos. En su libro El poder del Eje en la Europa ocupada publicado en 1944 definió así el genocidio:La puesta en práctica de acciones coordinadas que tienden a la destrucción de los elementos decisivos de la vida de los grupos nacionales, con la finalidad de su aniquilamiento.Según el sociólogo e historiador estadounidense Michael Mann, el genocidio es el grado más extremo de violencia intergrupal y el más extremo de todos los actos de limpieza étnica. Para este autor el impacto de los genocidios durante el siglo XX es devastador, tanto por el número de víctimas, que cifra en más de 70 millones de personas, como en la extrema crueldad de las agresiones.
  • Costituiscono genocidio, secondo la definizione adottata dall'ONU, «gli atti commessi con l'intenzione di distruggere, in tutto o in parte, un gruppo nazionale, etnico, razziale o religioso». Anche la sottomissione intenzionale di un gruppo a condizioni di esistenza che ne comportino la scomparsa sia fisica sia culturale, totale o parziale, è di solito inclusa nella definizione di genocidio.Il termine, derivante dalla greco γένος (ghénos razza, stirpe) e dal latino caedo (uccidere), è entrato nell'uso comune ed ha iniziato ad essere considerato come un crimine specifico, recepito nel diritto internazionale e nel diritto interno di molti Paesi. Il genocidio è uno dei peggiori crimini che l'uomo possa commettere perché comporta la morte di migliaia, a volte milioni, di persone e la perdita di patrimoni culturali immensi. È pertanto definito dalla giurisprudenza un crimine contro l'umanità.
  • Genocide (of volkerenmoord) is een oorlogsmisdaad die verboden is volgens het internationaal recht. Onder genocide wordt tevens massamoord verstaan, als deze het gevolg is van xenofobie.De Verenigde Naties namen in 1948 het Verdrag inzake de voorkoming en de bestraffing van genocide aan, waarin genocide wordt verboden. Deze conventie definieert in artikel 2 genocide als:
  • 집단 학살(集團虐殺) 또는 제노사이드(genocide)는 그리스어로 민족, 종족, 인종을 뜻하는 Geno와 살인을 뜻하는 Cide를 합친 말이며, 고의적으로 혹은 제도적으로 민족, 종족, 인종, 종교 집단의 전체나 일부를 파괴하는 범죄를 일컫는다.
  • Геноцидът (от гръцки:γενο – род, племе и латински:caedo – убивам) е целенасочено и систематично унищожаване, частично или пълно, на дадена национална, етническа, расова или религиозна група посредством: убийство на членовете на тази група; тежко физическо или психическо увреждане на членовете на групата; насилствено възпрепятстване на тяхното възпроизвеждане; причиняване на каквито и да е тежки условия за живот, с цел унищожаването, изцяло или частично, на тази група; насилствено отнемане на деца от една група и прехвърлянето им в друга група. В историята на човечеството могат да се намерят немалко случаи на геноцид, като се започне от древните времена и се стигне до наши дни. Той е характерно явление при изтребителните войни и опустошителните нашествия, при завоевателните походи, вътрешните етнически и религиозни сблъсъци, при периода на колонизацията и образуването на колониалните империи на европейските държави, при ожесточените борби за преразпределение на света, по време на двете световни войни и последвалите колониалните войни след края на Втората световна война 1939-1945. След промените у нас в края на миналия век, започва да се говори и за културен геноцид
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  • Un génocide est l'extermination physique, intentionnelle, systématique et programmée d'une population ou d'une partie d'une population en raison de ses origines ethniques, religieuses ou sociales.↑ Définition donnée par le droit, d'après Le Robert, dictionnaire, édition de 1993.
  • A népirtás vagy genocídium bizonyos bűncselekményeknek valamely nemzeti, etnikai, faji vagy vallási csoport teljes vagy részleges megsemmisítésének szándékával történő elkövetését jelenti.
  • Ludobójstwo – zbrodnia przeciwko ludzkości, obejmująca celowe wyniszczanie całych lub części narodów, grup etnicznych, religijnych lub rasowych, zarówno poprzez fizyczne zabójstwa członków grupy, jak i kontrolę urodzin, przymusowe odbieranie dzieci czy stworzenie warunków życia obliczonych na fizyczne wyniszczenie.
  • ジェノサイド(英: genocide)は、1944年、ユダヤ系ポーランド人法律家のラファエル・レムキンによって創られた造語であり(後述)、一つの人種・民族・国家・宗教などの構成員に対する抹消行為をさす。元々アルメニア人虐殺やナチス・ドイツのユダヤ人虐殺(ホロコースト)に対して使われていたことから、一般的には「大量虐殺」の意味で使われるが、国外強制退去による国内の民族浄化、あるいは異民族、異文化・異宗教に対する強制的な同化政策による文化抹消、また国家が不要あるいは望ましくないと見なした集団に対する断種手術の強要あるいは隔離行為など、あくまでも特定の集団等の抹消行為を指し、物理的な全殺戮のみを意味するわけではない。また、これを目的とした行為は集団殺戮行為も含め、国連のジェノサイド条約によって禁止されており、現在では、集団殺害罪は国際法上の犯罪として確立している。
  • Hom anomena genocidi el fet delictiu d'exterminar un col·lectiu humà, amb la intenció de fer desaparèixer el grup del què forma part, independentment que el lligam que uneix els seus membres sigui ètnic, nacional, religiós, polític o de qualsevol altre tipus. Segons el sociòleg i historiador Michael Mann és el grau més extrem de violència intergrupal i dels processos de neteja ètnica.
  • Genocida (latinsky genocidium) je zločin proti lidskosti definovaný mezinárodním trestním právem jako „úmyslné a systematické zničení, celé nebo části, etnické, rasové, náboženské nebo národnostní skupiny“ ačkoliv co znamená „část“ je subjektem debaty právníků.
  • Genocide (of volkerenmoord) is een oorlogsmisdaad die verboden is volgens het internationaal recht. Onder genocide wordt tevens massamoord verstaan, als deze het gevolg is van xenofobie.De Verenigde Naties namen in 1948 het Verdrag inzake de voorkoming en de bestraffing van genocide aan, waarin genocide wordt verboden. Deze conventie definieert in artikel 2 genocide als:
  • 집단 학살(集團虐殺) 또는 제노사이드(genocide)는 그리스어로 민족, 종족, 인종을 뜻하는 Geno와 살인을 뜻하는 Cide를 합친 말이며, 고의적으로 혹은 제도적으로 민족, 종족, 인종, 종교 집단의 전체나 일부를 파괴하는 범죄를 일컫는다.
  • Genocide is the systematic destruction of all or part of a racial, ethnic, religious or national group. What constitutes enough of a "part" to qualify as genocide has been subject to much debate by legal scholars. While a precise definition varies among genocide scholars, a legal definition is found in the 1948 United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG).
  • Геноцидът (от гръцки:γενο – род, племе и латински:caedo – убивам) е целенасочено и систематично унищожаване, частично или пълно, на дадена национална, етническа, расова или религиозна група посредством: убийство на членовете на тази група; тежко физическо или психическо увреждане на членовете на групата; насилствено възпрепятстване на тяхното възпроизвеждане; причиняване на каквито и да е тежки условия за живот, с цел унищожаването, изцяло или частично, на тази група; насилствено отнемане на деца от една група и прехвърлянето им в друга група.
  • Soykırım, ırk, canlı türü, siyasal görüş, din, sosyal durum ya da başka herhangi bir ayırıcı özellikleri ile diğerlerinden ayırt edilebilen bir topluluk veya toplulukların bireylerinin, yok edicilerin çıkarları doğrultusunda önemli sayıda ve düzenli biçimde yok edilmeleridir. Tam tanımı soykırım konusunda çalışan akademisyenler arasında değişim gösterse de, 1948’de Birleşmiş Milletler Soykırım Suçunun Engellenmesi ve Cezalandırılması Sözleşmesi’nde (SSECS) hukuksal bir tanımı bulunmaktadır.
  • Genozidioa etnia, nazionalitate, arraza, erlijio, politika eta beste arrazoiengatik pertsona talde bat masiboki eta apropos desagerraraztea da. Hitza Raphael Lemkin judutar poloniarrak asmatu zuen 1944ean, grekoko genos (familia, tribu edo erraza) eta latineko -cideretik (erahil) sustraietatik. 1951ean nazioarteko legeek genozidioa definitu eta debekatu zuten.Genozidiorako bide asko erabili izan dira; gosez hiltzen utzi, haurdun geratzen diren emakumeak haurrak galtzera behartu, etab.
  • Ein Völkermord oder Genozid ist seit der Konvention über die Verhütung und Bestrafung des Völkermordes von 1948 ein Straftatbestand im Völkerstrafrecht, der nicht verjährt.Der Begriff Genozid setzt sich zusammen aus dem griechischen Wort γένος (génos = „Herkunft, Abstammung, Geschlecht, Rasse“; im weiteren Sinne auch „das Volk“) sowie dem lateinischen caedere „morden, metzeln“.Gekennzeichnet ist er durch die spezielle Absicht, auf direkte oder indirekte Weise Vorlage:".
  • Costituiscono genocidio, secondo la definizione adottata dall'ONU, «gli atti commessi con l'intenzione di distruggere, in tutto o in parte, un gruppo nazionale, etnico, razziale o religioso».
  • Genosida atau genosid adalah sebuah pembantaian besar-besaran secara sistematis terhadap satu suku bangsa atau kelompok dengan maksud memusnahkan (membuat punah) bangsa tersebut. Kata ini pertama kali digunakan oleh seorang ahli hukum Polandia, Raphael Lemkin, pada tahun 1944 dalam bukunya Axis Rule in Occupied Europe yang diterbitkan di Amerika Serikat.
  • Геноци́д (от греч. γένος — род, племя и лат.
  • El genocidio es un delito internacional que comprende «cualquiera de los actos perpetrados con la intención de destruir, total o parcialmente, a un grupo nacional, étnico, racial o religioso como tal» estos actos comprenden la «matanza y lesión grave a la integridad física o mental de los miembros del grupo, sometimiento intencional del grupo a condiciones de existencia que hayan de acarrear su destrucción física, total o parcial, medidas destinadas a impedir nacimientos en el seno del grupo, traslado por la fuerza de niños del grupo a otro grupo».El término fue acuñado y definido por primera vez por el jurista judeo-polaco Raphael Lemkin, que en 1939 había huido de la persecución nazi y encontrado asilo en Estados Unidos.
  • Genocídio - tem sido definido como o assassinato deliberado de pessoas motivado por diferenças étnicas, nacionais, raciais, religiosas e (por vezes) políticas. Há algum desacordo, entre os diversos autores, quanto ao facto de se designar ou não como genocídio os assassinatos em massa por motivos políticos (ver: engenharia social).
rdfs:label
  • Génocide
  • Genocida
  • Genocide
  • Genocide
  • Genocidi
  • Genocidio
  • Genocidio
  • Genocídio
  • Genosida
  • Genozidio
  • Ludobójstwo
  • Népirtás
  • Soykırım
  • Völkermord
  • Геноцид
  • Геноцид
  • ジェノサイド
  • 집단 학살
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