正準分布(せいじゅんぶんぷ)、カノニカル分布(canonical distribution)は、統計力学において系の微視的状態を表現する統計集団の一つである正準集団、カノニカルアンサンブル(英: canonical ensemble)に従う統計分布である。カノニカル分布は熱浴(heat bath)との間でエネルギーを自由にやりとりできる系(閉鎖系)に対応する統計分布で、小正準分布、大正準分布とは体積が十分に大きい極限において熱力学的に等価である。

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dbpedia-owl:abstract
  • La colectividad canónica (o colectivo canónico) es una forma de plantear problemas en física estadística. Consiste en fijar en un sistema macroscópicamente el número de partículas, el volumen y la temperatura.Fuera de la física propiamente dicha, el formalismo del colectivo canónico ha sido usado para predecir teóricamente la distribución de la renta, por ejemplo, la observación de Pareto de que las rentas altas se distribuyen de acuerdo con una ley potencial inversa, puede deducirse del formalismo canónico. La evidencia indica además, que las rentas altas de diversos lugares de Estados Unidos se hallan en equilibrio termodinámico.
  • 正準分布(せいじゅんぶんぷ)、カノニカル分布(canonical distribution)は、統計力学において系の微視的状態を表現する統計集団の一つである正準集団、カノニカルアンサンブル(英: canonical ensemble)に従う統計分布である。カノニカル分布は熱浴(heat bath)との間でエネルギーを自由にやりとりできる系(閉鎖系)に対応する統計分布で、小正準分布、大正準分布とは体積が十分に大きい極限において熱力学的に等価である。
  • In meccanica statistica, l'insieme canonico è un insieme statistico che rappresenta una misura di probabilità degli stati microscopici del sistema. Si tratta di un sistema chiuso in equilibrio termico con una grande sorgente di calore, detta anche bagno di calore o termostato. Talvolta lo si indica come insieme NVT: il numero di particelle (N), il volume (V), e la temperatura (T) sono costanti del sistema.La funzione di distribuzione per gli stati di un sistema è data dalla distribuzione di Boltzmann. Una generalizzazione di questo è l'insieme gran canonico, in cui i sistemi si dividono le particelle come pure l'energia; al contrario, nell'Insieme Microcanonico l'energia di ciascun sistema individuale è fissata.In alcune derivazioni, il bagno di calore si considera comprendente un gran numero di copie del sistema originale, vagamente accoppiate all'originale e tra di loro, così da dividere la stessa energia totale - questo rende il loro combinarsi descrivibile dalle statistiche di un insieme microcanonico.
  • In statistical mechanics, a canonical ensemble is the statistical ensemble that is used to represent the possible states of a mechanical system which is in thermal equilibrium with a heat bath. The system is said to be closed in the sense that the system can exchange energy with a heat bath, so that various possible states of the system can differ in total energy. The system's composition, volume, and shape are kept the same in all possible states of the system.The thermodynamic variable of the canonical ensemble is the absolute temperature (symbol: T). The ensemble is also dependent on mechanical variables such as the number of particles in the system (symbol: N) and the system's volume (symbol: V), each which influence the nature of the system's internal states. This ensemble is therefore sometimes called the NVT ensemble, as each of these three quantities is a constant of the ensemble.In simple terms, the canonical ensemble assigns a probability P to each distinct microstate given by the following exponential:where E is the total energy of the microstate, and k is Boltzmann's constant.The number A is the free energy (specifically, the Helmholtz free energy) and is a constant for the ensemble. However, the probabilities and A will vary if different N, V, T are selected. The free energy A serves two roles: to provide a normalization factor for the probability distribution (the probabilities, over the complete set of microstates, must add up to one); and, many important ensemble averages can be directly calculated from the function A(N, V, T).Historically, the canonical ensemble was first described by Boltzmann (who called it a holode) in 1884 in a relatively unknown paper. It was later reformulated and extensively investigated by Gibbs in 1902. An alternative but equivalent formulation for the same concept writes the probability as , using the canonical partition function rather than the free energy. The equations below (in terms of free energy) may be restated in terms of the canonical partition function by simple mathematical manipulations.
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  • Représentation des états stationnaires du système, représentés par des barres bleues horizontales de couleur variant selon les valeurs de .
  • Le même système dans la situation canonique, pour une température donnée. Les états stationnaires ont un "poids" statistiques correspondant à la distribution canonique .
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  • Distribution des niveaux d'énergie pour un système quantique consistant en une particule dans un potentiel unidimensionnel.
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  • Ensemble quantum 1DOF all states.png
  • Ensemble quantum 1DOF canonical.png
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  • 正準分布(せいじゅんぶんぷ)、カノニカル分布(canonical distribution)は、統計力学において系の微視的状態を表現する統計集団の一つである正準集団、カノニカルアンサンブル(英: canonical ensemble)に従う統計分布である。カノニカル分布は熱浴(heat bath)との間でエネルギーを自由にやりとりできる系(閉鎖系)に対応する統計分布で、小正準分布、大正準分布とは体積が十分に大きい極限において熱力学的に等価である。
  • In statistical mechanics, a canonical ensemble is the statistical ensemble that is used to represent the possible states of a mechanical system which is in thermal equilibrium with a heat bath. The system is said to be closed in the sense that the system can exchange energy with a heat bath, so that various possible states of the system can differ in total energy.
  • In meccanica statistica, l'insieme canonico è un insieme statistico che rappresenta una misura di probabilità degli stati microscopici del sistema. Si tratta di un sistema chiuso in equilibrio termico con una grande sorgente di calore, detta anche bagno di calore o termostato.
  • La colectividad canónica (o colectivo canónico) es una forma de plantear problemas en física estadística.
rdfs:label
  • Ensemble canonique
  • Canonical ensemble
  • Colectividad canónica
  • Conjunto canónico
  • Insieme canonico
  • Kanonisches Ensemble
  • Zespół kanoniczny
  • Канонический ансамбль
  • カノニカル分布
  • 바른틀 앙상블
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