La dictature militaire au Brésil est le régime politique du Brésil qui débuta suite au coup d'État du 31 mars 1964, mené par le maréchal Castelo Branco renversant la Deuxième République et son président élu João Goulart, et qui dura jusqu'à l'élection de Tancredo Neves en 1985. Les militaires ont justifié le coup d'État, qui prenait place quelques années après l'alignement du régime cubain sur l'URSS, en prétextant la menace communiste.

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  • La dictature militaire au Brésil est le régime politique du Brésil qui débuta suite au coup d'État du 31 mars 1964, mené par le maréchal Castelo Branco renversant la Deuxième République et son président élu João Goulart, et qui dura jusqu'à l'élection de Tancredo Neves en 1985. Les militaires ont justifié le coup d'État, qui prenait place quelques années après l'alignement du régime cubain sur l'URSS, en prétextant la menace communiste. Mais, sur le plan intérieur, le coup d'État marque l'influence de l'armée brésilienne sur la politique, et sa volonté de prendre les commandes du pays en vertu d'une doctrine de la sécurité nationale formée sous l'influence des États-Unis, mais aussi de la France,.La dictature mit en place plusieurs Actes institutionnels, aboutissant avec l'Acte institutionnel n°5 de 1968 à la suspension de la Constitution de 1946, la dissolution du Congrès, la suppression des libertés individuelles et l'instauration d'un code de procédure pénale militaire qui autorise l'armée et la police à arrêter, puis à emprisonner, hors de tout contrôle judiciaire, tout « suspect ». Le régime militaire dura jusqu'à l'élection de Tancredo Neves en 1985.
  • The Brazilian military government was the authoritarian military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from March 31, 1964 to March 15, 1985. It began with the 1964 coup d'état led by the Armed Forces against the democratically elected government of left-wing President João Goulart and ended when José Sarney took office as President. The military revolt was fomented by Magalhães Pinto, Adhemar de Barros, and Carlos Lacerda, Governors of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro, respectively. Brazil’s military regime provided a model for other military regimes and dictatorships around Latin America, systematizing the “Doctrine of National Security,” which justified the military’s actions as operating in the interest of National Security in a time of crisis, creating an intellectual basis upon which other military regimes relied.The Brazilian Armed Forces acquired great political clout after the Paraguayan War. The politicization of the Armed Forces was evidenced by the Proclamation of the Republic, which overthrew the Empire, or within Tenentismo (Lieutenants' movement) and the Revolution of 1930. Tensions escalated again in the 1950s, as important military circles joined right-wing activists in attempts to stop Presidents Juscelino Kubitschek and João Goulart from taking office, due to their perceived alignment with Communist ideology. While Kubitschek proved to be friendly to capitalist institutions, Goulart promised far-reaching reforms, expropriated business interests and openly espoused sympathy with the Communist Bloc.In 1961, Goulart was allowed to take office, under an arrangement that decreased his powers as President with the installation of Parliamentarianism. The country returned to Presidential government in one year, and, as Goulart's powers grew, it became evident that he would seek to implement leftist policies such as land reform and nationalization of enterprises in various economic sectors, regardless of assent from established institutions such as Congress. Society became deeply polarized, with many fearing Brazil would join Cuba as party to the Communist Bloc in Latin America under Goulart. Influential politicians, such as Carlos Lacerda and even Kubitschek, media moguls (Roberto Marinho, Octávio Frias, Júlio de Mesquita Filho), the Church, landowners, businessmen, and the middle class[citation needed] called for a "counter-revolution" by the Armed Forces to remove the government.[citation needed]On March 31, 1964, rebel troop operations went underway. Goulart fled to Uruguay on April 1. The military dictatorship lasted for twenty-one years; despite initial pledges to the contrary, military governments soon enacted a new, restrictive Constitution, and stifled freedom of speech and political opposition with support from the U.S. government. The regime adopted nationalism, economic development, and opposition to Communism as guidelines. The dictatorship reached the height of its popularity in the 1970s, with the Brazilian Miracle, even as the regime censored all media, tortured and banished dissidents. In the 1980s, as other military regimes in Latin America fell, and the government failed to stimulate the economy and abate chronic inflation, the pro-democracy movement gained momentum. The government passed an Amnesty Law for political crimes committed for and against the regime, relaxed restrictions on civil liberties, then held Presidential elections in 1984 with civilian candidates. Since the 1988 Constitution was passed and Brazil returned to democracy, the military have stood under institutional civilian control, with no relevant political role.
  • Военен режим в Бразилия е военна диктатура в Бразилия, просъществувала от 31 март 1964 година до 15 март 1985 година.Военният режим започва с военен преврат на 31 март 1964 година, който отстранява законното лявоцентристко правителство на президента Жуау Гулар. Първоначално военните обявяват намерението си в близко време да възстановят конституционното управление, но в действителност режимът се задържа повече от 15 години. Наложени са ограничения на опозиционната политическа дейност и свободата на словото.Военното правителство постига значителна популярност през 70-те години, когато икономиката на страната се развива бързо за сметка на нарастващия държавен дълг. Нарастващите икономически затруднения през 80-те години принуждават военните постепенно да се оттеглят от управлението. Демокрацията в страната е окончателно възстановена с избора на президента Жузе Сарней през 1985 година.
  • O regime militar no Brasil foi instaurado em 1 de abril de 1964 e durou até 15 de março de 1985. De caráter autoritário e nacionalista, teve início com o golpe militar que derrubou o governo do presidente democraticamente eleito, João Goulart, e terminou quando José Sarney assumiu o cargo de presidente, dando início ao período conhecido como Nova República.Apesar das promessas iniciais de uma intervenção breve, a ditadura militar durou 21 anos. Além disso, o novo governo pôs em prática vários Atos Institucionais, culminando com o AI-5 de 1968, que vigorou até 1978. A Constituição de 1946 foi substituída pela Constituição de 1967 e, ao mesmo tempo, o Congresso Nacional foi dissolvido, liberdades civis foram suprimidas e foi criado um código de processo penal militar que permitia que o Exército brasileiro e a Polícia Militar do Brasil pudessem prender e encarcerar pessoas consideradas suspeitas, além de impossibilitar qualquer revisão judicial.O novo regime adotou uma diretriz nacionalista, desenvolvimentista e de oposição ao comunismo. A ditadura atingiu o auge de sua popularidade na década de 1970, com o "milagre brasileiro", no mesmo momento em que o regime censurava todos os meios de comunicação, torturava e exilava dissidentes. Na década de 1980, assim como outros regimes militares latino-americanos, a ditadura brasileira entrou em decadência e o governo não conseguia mais estimular a economia e diminuir a inflação crônica, o que deu impulso ao movimento pró-democracia. O governo aprovou uma Lei de Anistia para os crimes políticos cometidos pelo e contra o regime, as restrições às liberdades civis foram relaxadas e, então, eleições presidenciais foram realizadas em 1984, com candidatos civis.O regime militar brasileiro inspirou o modelo de outros regimes militares e ditaduras por toda a América Latina, através da sistematização da "Doutrina de Segurança Nacional", a qual justificava ações militares como forma de proteger o "interesse da segurança nacional" em tempos de crise. Desde a aprovação da Constituição de 1988, o Brasil voltou à normalidade institucional. Segundo a Carta, as Forças Armadas voltam ao seu papel institucional: a defesa do Estado, a garantia dos poderes constitucionais e (por iniciativa desses poderes) da lei e da ordem.
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  • Lyndon B. Johnson reçoit un briefing à propos du coup d'État.
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  • La dictature militaire au Brésil est le régime politique du Brésil qui débuta suite au coup d'État du 31 mars 1964, mené par le maréchal Castelo Branco renversant la Deuxième République et son président élu João Goulart, et qui dura jusqu'à l'élection de Tancredo Neves en 1985. Les militaires ont justifié le coup d'État, qui prenait place quelques années après l'alignement du régime cubain sur l'URSS, en prétextant la menace communiste.
  • Военен режим в Бразилия е военна диктатура в Бразилия, просъществувала от 31 март 1964 година до 15 март 1985 година.Военният режим започва с военен преврат на 31 март 1964 година, който отстранява законното лявоцентристко правителство на президента Жуау Гулар. Първоначално военните обявяват намерението си в близко време да възстановят конституционното управление, но в действителност режимът се задържа повече от 15 години.
  • The Brazilian military government was the authoritarian military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from March 31, 1964 to March 15, 1985. It began with the 1964 coup d'état led by the Armed Forces against the democratically elected government of left-wing President João Goulart and ended when José Sarney took office as President. The military revolt was fomented by Magalhães Pinto, Adhemar de Barros, and Carlos Lacerda, Governors of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro, respectively.
  • O regime militar no Brasil foi instaurado em 1 de abril de 1964 e durou até 15 de março de 1985. De caráter autoritário e nacionalista, teve início com o golpe militar que derrubou o governo do presidente democraticamente eleito, João Goulart, e terminou quando José Sarney assumiu o cargo de presidente, dando início ao período conhecido como Nova República.Apesar das promessas iniciais de uma intervenção breve, a ditadura militar durou 21 anos.
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  • Dictature militaire au Brésil (1964-1985)
  • Brazilian military government
  • Regime militar no Brasil
  • Военен режим в Бразилия
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