Le cynips du châtaignier (Dryocosmus kuriphilus), appelé aussi Chalcide du châtaignier, est un micro-hyménoptère ravageur parasite majeur du châtaignier.

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  • Le cynips du châtaignier (Dryocosmus kuriphilus), appelé aussi Chalcide du châtaignier, est un micro-hyménoptère ravageur parasite majeur du châtaignier.
  • Die Japanische Esskastanien-Gallwespe oder kurz Kastaniengallwespe (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) ist ein ursprünglich in Süd-China beheimateter Vertreter der Gallwespen (Cynipidae). Ihre Larven verursachen Gallen an Kastanien (Castanea). Besonders in China, Japan und teilweise den USA ist sie einer der bedeutendsten Schädlinge im Anbau von Kastanien. Sie gilt als weltweit bedeutendster Kastanien-Schädling.
  • Dryocosmus kuriphilus je žlabatka z řádu blanokřídlí (Hymenoptera), čeledi žlabatkovití (Cynipidae).Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Yasumatsu) je drobný hálkotvorný zástupce blanokřídlého hmyzu s původním rozšířením v Asii. Je považován za invazivní druh. Patří mezi významné škůdce kaštanovníků, působí ztráty na produkci jedlých kaštanů. V důsledku vysokého invazního potenciálu byl tento druh v posledních letech zavlečen také na území Evropské unie. Dryocosmus kuriphilus je považován za ekonomicky významný škodlivý organismus, je zařazen do seznamu škodlivých organismů, jejichž zavlékání a rozšiřování je zakázáno.
  • Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a species of gall wasp known by the common names chestnut gall wasp, Oriental chestnut gall wasp, and Asian chestnut gall wasp. It is native to China and it is known in many other parts of the world, particularly the Northern Hemisphere, as an introduced species and an invasive horticultural pest. It attacks many species of chestnut (genus Castanea), including most cultivated varieties. It is considered the world's worst pest of chestnuts.When it was first discovered, the wasp was considered to be a species of Biorhiza. It was given its current name in 1951, when it was formally described. By this time it had invaded Japan and was attacking chestnuts there. It is now in Korea, Nepal, Italy, Slovenia, France, Switzerland and other parts of Europe, and the southeastern United States.The adult female wasp is 2.5 to 3 millimeters long and shiny black in color with brown legs. It produces stalked white eggs, each about 0.2 millimeters long, and the larva is white and about 2.5 millimeters long. The adult male of the species has never been observed.The female lays eggs in the buds of chestnut trees, sometimes producing over 100 eggs. The wasp is thelytokous, producing fertile eggs by parthenogenesis, without fertilization by a male. Oviposition occurs in the summer. Larvae hatch from the eggs but do not begin growing immediately. Their growth begins the following spring, when the tree buds begin to develop. At this time, the larvae induce the formation of galls on the tree. The galls are green or pinkish and up to 2 centimeters wide. The larvae develop inside the protective gall structures and emerge from them as adults. The galls dry out and become woody. The galls can be very damaging to the tree. They occur on the new growth of the tree, disrupting the fruiting process, and can reduce a tree's yield up to 70%. They are even known to kill trees.The presence of galls can also increase the likelihood of the tree's becoming infected with chestnut blight, a condition caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. The opened gall left by the wasp after it matures and departs may be an entrance through which the fungus can infest the tree's tissues.Chestnut species affected by the gall wasp include Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata), American chestnut (C. dentata), Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima), European chestnut (C. sativa), Seguin chestnut (C. seguinii), Henry's chinquapin (C. henryi), and hybrids. So far it has not been observed on the Allegheny chinquapin (C. pumila).The wasp can fly, but it is distributed to new territory more often by human activity, such as the planting of new trees and the transport of infested wood.Control measures include pruning infested buds off of trees and protecting buds with netting. These methods are not practical for large numbers of trees, such as commercial orchards. Pesticides are generally not effective because the insects take cover inside the galls. One gall wasp control method which has been successful is the introduction of the torymid wasp Torymus sinensis. This parasitoid is used as an agent of biological pest control against the gall wasp in Japan. Research is underway to determine where else it might be appropriate to release the parasitoid. A number of other parasitoids have been noted with the gall wasp, including the torymids Torymus beneficus, T. geranii, and Megastigmus nipponicus, the ormyrid wasps Ormyris punctiger and O. flavitibialis, and the eurytomid wasps Eurytoma brunniventris and E. setigera. These species do not make effective control agents, as their rates of parasitism are not high.
  • Il cinipide del castagno o cinipide galligeno del castagno o vespa del castagno (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, 1951) è un insetto dell'ordine degli imenotteri fitofago detto galligeno perché induce la comparsa di ingrossamenti tondeggianti detti galle su germogli e foglie delle piante colpite nei quali la sua larva compie il ciclo vitale. Particolarmente dannoso per il Castagno e specie affini per cui ne viene considerato l'insetto più nocivo a livello mondiale a causa del veloce deperimento delle piante che attacca. Il cinipide attacca i germogli delle piante ospiti causando la formazione di galle, arrestandone la crescita vegetativa e provocando una riduzione della fruttificazione. Infestazioni gravi possono portare al deperimento della pianta.
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  • Le cynips du châtaignier (Dryocosmus kuriphilus), appelé aussi Chalcide du châtaignier, est un micro-hyménoptère ravageur parasite majeur du châtaignier.
  • Die Japanische Esskastanien-Gallwespe oder kurz Kastaniengallwespe (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) ist ein ursprünglich in Süd-China beheimateter Vertreter der Gallwespen (Cynipidae). Ihre Larven verursachen Gallen an Kastanien (Castanea). Besonders in China, Japan und teilweise den USA ist sie einer der bedeutendsten Schädlinge im Anbau von Kastanien. Sie gilt als weltweit bedeutendster Kastanien-Schädling.
  • Il cinipide del castagno o cinipide galligeno del castagno o vespa del castagno (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, 1951) è un insetto dell'ordine degli imenotteri fitofago detto galligeno perché induce la comparsa di ingrossamenti tondeggianti detti galle su germogli e foglie delle piante colpite nei quali la sua larva compie il ciclo vitale.
  • Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a species of gall wasp known by the common names chestnut gall wasp, Oriental chestnut gall wasp, and Asian chestnut gall wasp. It is native to China and it is known in many other parts of the world, particularly the Northern Hemisphere, as an introduced species and an invasive horticultural pest. It attacks many species of chestnut (genus Castanea), including most cultivated varieties.
  • Dryocosmus kuriphilus je žlabatka z řádu blanokřídlí (Hymenoptera), čeledi žlabatkovití (Cynipidae).Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Yasumatsu) je drobný hálkotvorný zástupce blanokřídlého hmyzu s původním rozšířením v Asii. Je považován za invazivní druh. Patří mezi významné škůdce kaštanovníků, působí ztráty na produkci jedlých kaštanů. V důsledku vysokého invazního potenciálu byl tento druh v posledních letech zavlečen také na území Evropské unie.
rdfs:label
  • Cynips du châtaignier
  • Dryocosmus kuriphilus
  • Dryocosmus kuriphilus
  • Dryocosmus kuriphilus
  • Japanische Esskastanien-Gallwespe
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