Le congiaire (congiarium en latin) est à l’origine un don en nature, notamment d’huile, ou de vin, donné au peuple de Rome par les magistrats. Sous l’Empire, il devient plus souvent un don en argent, à l’occasion de grandes victoires, d’une naissance dans la famille impériale ou d’une autre occasion de réjouissances publiques.

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  • Le congiaire (congiarium en latin) est à l’origine un don en nature, notamment d’huile, ou de vin, donné au peuple de Rome par les magistrats. Sous l’Empire, il devient plus souvent un don en argent, à l’occasion de grandes victoires, d’une naissance dans la famille impériale ou d’une autre occasion de réjouissances publiques.
  • Of Ancient Roman containers, a congiarium, or congiary, (Latin, from congius) was a vessel containing one congius, a measure of volume equal to six sextarii.In the early times of the Roman Republic, the congius was the usual measure of oil or wine which was, on certain occasions, distributed among the people; and thus congiarium became a name for liberal donations to the people, in general, whether consisting of oil, wine, grain, or money, or other things, while donations made to the soldiers were called donativa, though they were sometimes also termed congiaria.Congiarium was, moreover, occasionally used simply to designate a present or a pension given by a person of high rank, or a prince, to his friends; and Fabius Maximus called the presents which Augustus made to his friends, on account of their smallness, heminaria, instead of congiaria, because hemina was only the twelfth part of a congius.Tiberius gave a congiarium of 72½ denarii (300 sesterces) to each citizen. Caligula gave the same amount of three hundred sesterces on two occasions. Nero, whose congiaria were the earliest known examples represented on medals, gave four hundred.Despite Trajan's financial success, his practice of giving extravagant congiaria to the people of Rome received severe condemnation. His first congiarium, in 99, was probably no larger than that of Nerva (75 denarii per person), but his second and third distributions of money, after each Dacian War, amounted to 650 denarii per person.Hadrian treated the Roman people in the same way as Trajan, and of him Fronto said:Template:"
  • Congiarium (Congiarium, congiary; congius; мн.ч.: Congiarien, congiary; лат.: = помощ, подарък) първоначално е императорска помощ на зърнени продукти в Древен Рим.Думата идва от мерната единица congius (3,20 литра) и първо е натурална, после и парична помощ на императора и богатите римляни на народа, по случай празници. Това е доброволна помощ, без да се иска нещо обратно.На един релеф на Константиновата арка се показва даването на парична помощ от император Константин.Също и на много антични римски монети се показва тази тема, с което конгиариумът се нарича и liberalitas (= готовност да дадеш, без да си задължен).
  • Per congiarium (dal latino congius) o congiaria (al plurale) si intendevano i contenitori ai tempi dell'antica Roma, pari ad un congio ovvero sei sextarii (corrispondente grosso modo a poco più di tre litri attuali).Nei primi tempi della Repubblica romana, il congio era una misura utilizzata per olio e vino, che in certe occasioni venivano distribuite tra il popolo di Roma. Da ciò ne derivò il significato di congiarium (in italiano congiario), vale a dire di libera donazione (liberalitas) al popolo (plebe), in generale, potendo riguardare sia vino, olio, grano, sale, denaro o altri beni come gli stessi spettacoli, mentre le donazioni fatte all'esercito furono chiamate donativa, sebbene a volte fossero anch'esse chiamate congiaria.Sempre per Congiaria si intendevano semplicemente un regalo o una pensione data da una persona di alto rango, o dallo stesso princeps ai suoi amici.
  • A l'antiga Roma, un Congiari (Congiarium) era una gerra per contenir un congi (congius), equivalent a sis sextaris que era la mesura més corrent per l'oli. Durant la república romana el congi era la mesura habitual per l'oli. Quan es feia la distribució d'oli entre el poble es donava justament un congiari. Això va fer que el nom congiari fos aplicat en general a les donacions liberals al poble, fins i tot si eren de vi, gra o diner entre altres coses. En canvi les donacions als soldats es deien donativa i si bé algunes vegades es va aplicar la paraula congiaria, no era correcte. També es va donar el nom de congiària a una pensió que l'emperador o persones d'alt rang donaven als seus amics.Sovint s'utilitza el terme congiarium per indicar un regal fet per una persona d'alt rang als seus amics. Tiberi quan va pujar al tron va donar tres-centes monedes a cada ciutad; Calígula ho va doblar (600 sestercis en dues vegades); Neró en va donar 400. Trajà va donar 75 denaris per persona el 99 pero després en va fer almenys dues més que van pujar fins a 650 denaris per cap.
  • Ein Congiarium (lat.: Spende, Geschenk, plural: Congiarien) war ursprünglich eine kaiserliche Getreidespende im alten Rom.Die Bezeichnung leitet sich von der Maßeinheit congius (3,20 Liter) ab und war anfänglich eine Natural- und später eine Geldleistung des Kaisers und reicher Römer an das Volk, in der Regel anlässlich festlicher Ereignisse. Es handelte sich um eine freiwillige Leistung, auf die das Volk keinen Rechtsanspruch hatte, war aber auch nicht mit der Hoffnung oder dem Anspruch auf eine Gegenleistung verbunden. Der Konstantinsbogen enthält ein Relief, auf dem die Vergabe von Geldspenden durch Kaiser Konstantin gezeigt wird. Auch viele antike römische Münzen widmen sich diesem Thema, womit das Congiarium teilweise auch Liberalitas (= Bereitwilligkeit, zu geben, ohne dazu verpflichtet zu sein) genannt wurde.Eventuell ist die Cocagna auf den Brauch der Congiarien zurückzuführen.
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  • Le congiaire (congiarium en latin) est à l’origine un don en nature, notamment d’huile, ou de vin, donné au peuple de Rome par les magistrats. Sous l’Empire, il devient plus souvent un don en argent, à l’occasion de grandes victoires, d’une naissance dans la famille impériale ou d’une autre occasion de réjouissances publiques.
  • A l'antiga Roma, un Congiari (Congiarium) era una gerra per contenir un congi (congius), equivalent a sis sextaris que era la mesura més corrent per l'oli. Durant la república romana el congi era la mesura habitual per l'oli. Quan es feia la distribució d'oli entre el poble es donava justament un congiari. Això va fer que el nom congiari fos aplicat en general a les donacions liberals al poble, fins i tot si eren de vi, gra o diner entre altres coses.
  • Congiarium (Congiarium, congiary; congius; мн.ч.: Congiarien, congiary; лат.: = помощ, подарък) първоначално е императорска помощ на зърнени продукти в Древен Рим.Думата идва от мерната единица congius (3,20 литра) и първо е натурална, после и парична помощ на императора и богатите римляни на народа, по случай празници.
  • Ein Congiarium (lat.: Spende, Geschenk, plural: Congiarien) war ursprünglich eine kaiserliche Getreidespende im alten Rom.Die Bezeichnung leitet sich von der Maßeinheit congius (3,20 Liter) ab und war anfänglich eine Natural- und später eine Geldleistung des Kaisers und reicher Römer an das Volk, in der Regel anlässlich festlicher Ereignisse.
  • Per congiarium (dal latino congius) o congiaria (al plurale) si intendevano i contenitori ai tempi dell'antica Roma, pari ad un congio ovvero sei sextarii (corrispondente grosso modo a poco più di tre litri attuali).Nei primi tempi della Repubblica romana, il congio era una misura utilizzata per olio e vino, che in certe occasioni venivano distribuite tra il popolo di Roma.
  • Of Ancient Roman containers, a congiarium, or congiary, (Latin, from congius) was a vessel containing one congius, a measure of volume equal to six sextarii.In the early times of the Roman Republic, the congius was the usual measure of oil or wine which was, on certain occasions, distributed among the people; and thus congiarium became a name for liberal donations to the people, in general, whether consisting of oil, wine, grain, or money, or other things, while donations made to the soldiers were called donativa, though they were sometimes also termed congiaria.Congiarium was, moreover, occasionally used simply to designate a present or a pension given by a person of high rank, or a prince, to his friends; and Fabius Maximus called the presents which Augustus made to his friends, on account of their smallness, heminaria, instead of congiaria, because hemina was only the twelfth part of a congius.Tiberius gave a congiarium of 72½ denarii (300 sesterces) to each citizen.
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  • Congiaire
  • Congiari
  • Congiarium
  • Congiarium
  • Congiarium
  • Конгиариум
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