Bayard Rustin, né le 17 mars 1912 à West Chester (Pennsylvanie) et mort le 24 août 1987 en Haïti, est un militant des droits civiques des Noirs aux États-Unis.

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  • Bayard Rustin, né le 17 mars 1912 à West Chester (Pennsylvanie) et mort le 24 août 1987 en Haïti, est un militant des droits civiques des Noirs aux États-Unis.
  • Bayard Rustin (Chester, Pennsylvania, 17 de marzo de 1910 – Nueva York, 24 de agosto de 1987) fue un activista estadounidense por los derechos civiles, que trabajó intensamente en el Movimiento por los Derechos Civiles de los años 60, y principal organizador de la marcha sobre Washington, de 1963. Fue quién asesoró a Martin Luther King, Jr. sobre las técnicas de la resistencia no violenta. Rustin era abiertamente gay y abogó por la causa de los derechos para gays y lesbianas al final de su carrera.Un año antes de su muerte en 1987, Rustin dijo: "El barómetro para saber como se está respecto a los derechos humanos no es la comunidad negra, es la comunidad gay. Porque es la comunidad que más fácilmente es maltratada."
  • Bayard Rustin (* 17. März 1912 in West Chester (Pennsylvania); † 24. August 1987 in New York City) war ein afroamerikanischer Bürgerrechts-Aktivist, der hauptsächlich hinter den Kulissen wirkte. Er war Vorbereiter und treibende Kraft der Bürgerrechtsbewegung und beriet Martin Luther King, Jr. in Fragen des gewaltfreien Widerstandes. Rustin war offen schwul und war in den letzten Jahren seiner Karriere Anwalt für LGBT-Fälle.1986, ein Jahr vor seinem Tod, sagte Rustin: "Das Barometer, wo wir in Fragen der Menschenrechte stehen, ist nicht mehr die schwarze Community, es ist die schwule Community. Das ist die Gruppe, die am leichtesten misshandelt werden kann."
  • Bayard Rustin (17 de Março de 1912 – 24 de Agosto de 1987) foi um activista pelos direitos civis dos Afro-Americanos, sobretudo pelo seu papel de organizador da Marcha sobre Washington pelo Trabalho e pela Liberdade, em 1963. Foi conselheiro de Martin Luther King sobre resistência civil não-violenta. Rustin era abertamente gay[1] e, na parte final da sua carreira, defendeu causas gay e lésbicas. Pouco antes da sua morte, em 1987, Rustin disse: "O barómetro da nossa posição sobre a questão dos direitos humanos já não reside na comunidade negra, mas na comunidade gay. Porque é esta comunidade que é mais facilmente maltratada."
  • 베이어드 러스틴(Bayard Rustin, 1912년 3월 17일 ~ 1987년 8월 24일)은 미국의 시민권, 성소수자 권리 운동가이며 비폭력주의, 평화주의, 사회주의, 사민주의자였다. 그는 그의 가족이 인권 운동을 해온 펜실베니아에서 태어나고 자랐으며 1936년 뉴욕시로 이주하였다. 가수 활동으로 생업을 유지하며 꾸준히 인권 운동가로서 활동하였다.러스틴은 평화주의적인 우화회(Fellowship of Reconciliation)에서 비폭력주의를 실습하였으며, 1947년과 1955년사이의 초기 시민권 운동을 지도하였다. 그는 마틴 루터 킹의 지도력을 알아보고, 남부 기독교 연합 회의를 조직하는데 도움을 주었다. 간디의 비폭력주의 운동을 관찰하며, 러스틴은 비폭력주의 철학과 비폭력주의 저항을 증진하였다. 1955년부터 1968년 사이 그는 시민 운동의 주요 전략가가 되었다. 필립 랜돌프가 결성한 1963년 워싱턴 행진의 핵심 지도자로 활동하며 흑인 노조 연합과 사회주의자들을 이끌었다. 러스틴은 젊은 활동가와 단체들에게도 강한 영향을 주었다.그는 1953년 반동성애 법에 의해 체포되기도 했던 동성애자이다. 미국에서 동성애 행위는 1990년대에도 낙인찍혀왔으며, 2003년까지 부분적으로 불법으로 취급되었다. 러스틴의 성정체성, 특히 동성애 행위로 인한 체포와 6개월간의 구금은 다른 평화주의자, 시민권 활동가들에게 비판받기도 하고 반대 진영으로부터 '비도덕적', '변태'라는 비난을 받아 입지가 좁아지기도 하였다. 1941년까지 미국 공산당과 활동 했던 이력 또한 그를 공격하는 단골 소재였다. 이러한 공격을 막기 위해 그는 대중적인 연설가로 활동하기보다는 시민권 운동가들에 대한 영향력 높은 조언자로서 행동하였다. 1970년대에 그는 게이와 레즈비언의 인권 증익을 위한 대중적 인물이 되었다.2013년 8월 미국 대통령 오바마는 러스틴에게 미국 최고 시민상인 대통령 자유 훈장을 사후수여하였다.
  • Bayard Rustin (ur. 17 marca 1912, zm. 24 sierpnia 1987) - amerykański działacz ruchu praw obywatelskich, główny organizator Marszu na Waszyngton w 1963 roku. Doradca Martina Luthera Kinga w kwestiach związanych z biernym oporem.W młodości Rustin był przez krótki okres (1936-1941) związany z Komunistyczną Partią Stanów Zjednoczonych. Gdy w roku 1941 amerykańscy komuniści wstrzymali działania na rzecz praw ludności kolorowej, Rustin związał się z socjalistami o nastawieniu antykomunistycznym, przede wszystkim z przywódcą związkowym A. Philipem Randolphem i pacyfistycznym kaznodzieją A.J. Mustem. W latach 40. i 50. działał w ruchu antywojennym i antyrasistowskim. Rustin był otwarcie gejem, kilkakrotnie więziony za kontakty homoseksualne, odmowę służby w wojsku oraz łamanie ustaw segregacyjnych.Od 1956 roku był bliskim współpracownikiem Martina Luthera Kinga. W 1963 roku zorganizował Marsz na Waszyngton pod hasłami podniesienia płacy minimalnej i zaprzestania segregacji rasowej.W latach 60. współpracował z administracją prezydenta Lyndona Johnsona przy wprowadzaniu programu reform społecznych "Wielkie Społeczeństwo" (The Great Society), obejmującego m.in. walkę z ubóstwem, poprawę dostępu do edukacji i opieki medycznej, rozwój zapóźnionych terenów itp.W latach 70. i 80. wspierał ruchy na rzecz praw człowieka, opowiadał się za solidarnością amerykańskich Murzynów z Izraelem, popierał publicznie ruch gejów i lesbijek.W swojej działalności Rustin kierował się wizją pełnej integracji czarnych obywateli USA z amerykańskim społeczeństwem. Polemizował z separatyzmem Malcolma X i Czarnych Panter, stając się wczesnym krytykiem polityki tożsamości. Uważał, że równość rasową można osiągnąć dzięki reformom, przede wszystkim nastawionym na sprawiedliwość ekonomiczną.Na podstawie jego biografii powstał w roku 2003 film dokumentalny Brother Outsider: The Life of Bayard Rustin (Brat Outsider: życie Bayarda Rustina), w reżyserii Nancy Kates i Bennet Singer.== Przypisy ==
  • Bayard Rustin (/ˈbaɪərd/; March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an American leader in social movements for civil rights, socialism, pacifism and non-violence, and gay rights. He was born and raised in Pennsylvania where his family was involved in civil rights work. In 1936, he moved to Harlem, New York City and earned a living as a nightclub and stage singer, and continued activism for civil rights.In the pacifist Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), Rustin practiced nonviolence. He was a leading activist of the early 1947–1955 civil-rights movement, helping to initiate a 1947 Freedom Ride to challenge with civil disobedience racial segregation on interstate busing. He recognized Martin Luther King, Jr.'s leadership, and helped to organize the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to strengthen King's leadership; Rustin promoted the philosophy of nonviolence and the practices of nonviolent resistance, which he had observed while working with Gandhi's movement in India. Rustin became a leading strategist of the civil rights movement from 1955 to 1968. He was the chief organizer of the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which was headed by A. Philip Randolph, the leading African-American labor-union president and socialist. Rustin also influenced young activists, such as Tom Kahn and Stokely Carmichael, in organizations like the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).After the passage of the civil-rights legislation of 1964–65, Rustin focused attention on the economic problems of working-class and unemployed African Americans, suggesting that the civil-rights movement had left its period of "protest" and had entered an era of "politics", in which the Black community had to ally with the labor movement. Rustin became the head of the AFL–CIO's A. Philip Randolph Institute, which promoted the integration of formerly all-white unions and promoted the unionization of African Americans. Rustin became an honorary chairperson of the Socialist Party of America in 1972, before it changed its name to Social Democrats, USA (SDUSA); Rustin acted as national chairman of SDUSA during the 1970s. During the 1970s and 1980s, Rustin served on many humanitarian missions, such as aiding refugees from Communist Vietnam and Cambodia. He was on a humanitarian mission in Haiti when he died in 1987.Rustin was a gay man who had been arrested for a homosexual act in 1953. Homosexuality was criminalized in parts of the United States until 2003. Rustin's sexuality, or at least his embarrassingly public criminal charge, was criticized by some fellow pacifists and civil-rights leaders. Rustin was attacked as a "pervert" or "immoral influence" by political opponents from segregationists to Black power militants, and from the 1950s through the 1970s. In addition, his pre-1941 Communist Party affiliation when he was a young man was controversial. To avoid such attacks, Rustin served only rarely as a public spokesperson. He usually acted as an influential adviser to civil-rights leaders. In the 1970s, he became a public advocate on behalf of gay and lesbian causes.On November 20, 2013, President Barack Obama posthumously awarded Rustin the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
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  • Bayard Rustin, né le 17 mars 1912 à West Chester (Pennsylvanie) et mort le 24 août 1987 en Haïti, est un militant des droits civiques des Noirs aux États-Unis.
  • Bayard Rustin (* 17. März 1912 in West Chester (Pennsylvania); † 24. August 1987 in New York City) war ein afroamerikanischer Bürgerrechts-Aktivist, der hauptsächlich hinter den Kulissen wirkte. Er war Vorbereiter und treibende Kraft der Bürgerrechtsbewegung und beriet Martin Luther King, Jr. in Fragen des gewaltfreien Widerstandes.
  • Bayard Rustin (ur. 17 marca 1912, zm. 24 sierpnia 1987) - amerykański działacz ruchu praw obywatelskich, główny organizator Marszu na Waszyngton w 1963 roku. Doradca Martina Luthera Kinga w kwestiach związanych z biernym oporem.W młodości Rustin był przez krótki okres (1936-1941) związany z Komunistyczną Partią Stanów Zjednoczonych.
  • Bayard Rustin (/ˈbaɪərd/; March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an American leader in social movements for civil rights, socialism, pacifism and non-violence, and gay rights. He was born and raised in Pennsylvania where his family was involved in civil rights work. In 1936, he moved to Harlem, New York City and earned a living as a nightclub and stage singer, and continued activism for civil rights.In the pacifist Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), Rustin practiced nonviolence.
  • Bayard Rustin (17 de Março de 1912 – 24 de Agosto de 1987) foi um activista pelos direitos civis dos Afro-Americanos, sobretudo pelo seu papel de organizador da Marcha sobre Washington pelo Trabalho e pela Liberdade, em 1963. Foi conselheiro de Martin Luther King sobre resistência civil não-violenta. Rustin era abertamente gay[1] e, na parte final da sua carreira, defendeu causas gay e lésbicas.
  • Bayard Rustin (Chester, Pennsylvania, 17 de marzo de 1910 – Nueva York, 24 de agosto de 1987) fue un activista estadounidense por los derechos civiles, que trabajó intensamente en el Movimiento por los Derechos Civiles de los años 60, y principal organizador de la marcha sobre Washington, de 1963. Fue quién asesoró a Martin Luther King, Jr. sobre las técnicas de la resistencia no violenta.
  • 베이어드 러스틴(Bayard Rustin, 1912년 3월 17일 ~ 1987년 8월 24일)은 미국의 시민권, 성소수자 권리 운동가이며 비폭력주의, 평화주의, 사회주의, 사민주의자였다. 그는 그의 가족이 인권 운동을 해온 펜실베니아에서 태어나고 자랐으며 1936년 뉴욕시로 이주하였다. 가수 활동으로 생업을 유지하며 꾸준히 인권 운동가로서 활동하였다.러스틴은 평화주의적인 우화회(Fellowship of Reconciliation)에서 비폭력주의를 실습하였으며, 1947년과 1955년사이의 초기 시민권 운동을 지도하였다. 그는 마틴 루터 킹의 지도력을 알아보고, 남부 기독교 연합 회의를 조직하는데 도움을 주었다. 간디의 비폭력주의 운동을 관찰하며, 러스틴은 비폭력주의 철학과 비폭력주의 저항을 증진하였다. 1955년부터 1968년 사이 그는 시민 운동의 주요 전략가가 되었다.
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