Connue pour les gratte-ciel de Manhattan, la ville de New York recèle bien d'autres formes d'architecture qui constituent un résumé de l'histoire de l'architecture américaine et de l'architecture contemporaine.

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  • Connue pour les gratte-ciel de Manhattan, la ville de New York recèle bien d'autres formes d'architecture qui constituent un résumé de l'histoire de l'architecture américaine et de l'architecture contemporaine.
  • The building form most closely associated with New York City is the skyscraper, which has controversially shifted many commercial and residential districts from low-rise to high-rise. Surrounded mostly by water, the city has amassed one of the largest and most varied collection of skyscrapers in the world.New York has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles spanning distinct historical and cultural periods. These include the Woolworth Building (1913), an early Gothic revival skyscraper with large-scale gothic architectural detail. The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setback in new buildings, and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. The Art Deco design of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. The Chrysler building is considered by many historians and architects to be one of New York's finest, with its distinctive ornamentation such as V-shaped lighting inserts capped by a steel spire at the tower's crown. An early influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its facade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building's structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is an important example of green design in American skyscrapers.The character of New York's large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses, townhouses, and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930. In contrast, New York City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. In the outer boroughs, large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian. Split two-family homes are also widely available across the outer boroughs, especially in the Flushing area.Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835. Unlike Paris, which for centuries was built from its own limestone bedrock, New York has always drawn its building stone from a far-flung network of quarries and its stone buildings have a variety of textures and hues. A distinctive feature of many of the city's buildings is the presence of wooden roof-mounted water towers. In the 19th century, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could burst municipal water pipes. Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, including Jackson Heights in Queens, which became more accessible with expansion of the subway.New York has two main concentrations of high-rise buildings: Midtown Manhattan and Lower Manhattan, each with its own uniquely recognizable skyline. Midtown Manhattan, the largest central business district in the world, is home to such notable buildings as the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, Citigroup Center and Rockefeller Center. Lower Manhattan comprises the third largest central business district in the United States (after Midtown and Chicago's Loop). Lower Manhattan was characterized by the omnipresence of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center from its completion in 1973 until its destruction in the September 11 attacks, 2001.In the first decade of the 21st century, Lower Manhattan saw rapid reconstruction to include the new One World Trade Center. The Downtown skyline received new designs from such architects as Santiago Calatrava and Frank Gehry. Goldman Sachs is building a 225-metre-tall (738 ft), 43-floor building across the street from the World Trade Center site.New York City has a long history of tall buildings. It has been home to 10 buildings that have held the world's tallest fully habitable building title at some point in history, although half have since been demolished. The first building to bring the world's tallest title to New York was the New York World Building, in 1890. Later, New York City was home to the world's tallest building for 75 continuous years, starting with the Park Row Building in 1899 and ending with 1 World Trade Center upon completion of the Sears Tower in 1974. One of the world's earliest skyscrapers, still standing in the city, is the Park Row Building, built in 1899.The high-rise buildings of Brooklyn constitute a third, much smaller skyline. The high-rise buildings in downtown Brooklyn are centered around a major NYC subway hub. Downtown Brooklyn is also experiencing an extensive building boom, with new high rise luxury residential towers, commercial space and a new arena in the planning stages. The building boom in Brooklyn has had a great deal of opposition from local civic and environmental groups which contend that Brooklyn needs to maintain its human scale. The borough of Queens has also been developing its own skyline in recent years with a Citigroup office building (which is currently the tallest building in NYC outside Manhattan), and the Queens West development of several residential towers along the East River waterfront.The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setback in new buildings, and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below.The Empire State Building, a 102-story contemporary Art Deco style building, was designed by Shreve, Lamb and Harmon and finished in 1931. It was the world's tallest building for a record 42 years. The tower takes its name from the nickname of New York State and is currently the tallest building in the city. It was the first building to go beyond the 100+ story mark, and has one of the world's most visited observation decks, which over 110 million have visited since its completion. The building was built in a record 14 months.Completed in 1930, the Chrysler Building is a distinctive symbol of New York, standing 1,048 feet (319 m) high on the east side of Manhattan. Originally built for the Chrysler Corporation, the building is presently co-owned by TMW Real Estate (75%) and Tishman Speyer Properties (25%). The Chrysler Building was the first structure in the world to surpass the 1,000 foot threshold.The GE Building is a slim Art Deco skyscraper and the focal point of Rockefeller Center. At 850 ft (259 m) with 70 floors, it is the seventh tallest building in New York and the 30th tallest in the United States. Built in 1933 and originally called the RCA Building, it is one of the most famous and recognized skyscrapers in New York. The frieze above the main entrance was executed by Lee Lawrie and depicts Wisdom, along with a phrase from scripture that reads "Wisdom and Knowledge shall be the stability of thy times", originally found in the Book of Isaiah, 33:6.The International Style was a groundbreaking exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art that completely changed the face of architecture in New York and the world. Mies Van Der Rohe, a focus of the show, later built the Seagram Building on Park Ave at 53rd Street. One of the most important buildings for modern architecture, the Seagram Building transformed its midtown site, the development of tall buildings, and the history of architecture. Other architects replicated details from Seagram within New York and around the world for decades following its completion in the late 1950s. The bronze extrusions attached to the mullions are exemplary of this trend in tall building design and can be seen in many cities.The MetLife Building, formerly the Pan Am Building, was the largest commercial office building in the world when it opened on 7 March 1963. It is an important part of the Manhattan skyline and one of the fifty tallest buildings in the USA.The World Trade Center's twin towers were the city's tallest buildings from 1973 until their destruction in the September 11 attacks. The towers rose 1,368 feet (417 m) and 1,362 feet (415 m) respectively, both 110 Floors. The North Tower's 360 foot antenna housed most of the city's communications, while the South Tower was home to a popular observation deck. They were the tallest buildings in the world until Chicago's 1,454-foot Sears Tower was completed in 1974.Citigroup Center is 59-story office tower located at 53rd Street and Lexington Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. It is considered one of the most important post-war skyscrapers to be in erected in New York City. The striking design of the steeply slanted roof, the sleek aluminum-clad façade, and its base on four stilts over a church also on the site made the skyscraper an instant architectural icon. The sloping roof houses the building's mechanical and ventilation systems. The designers settled on an aluminum-clad façade to reduce the weight load on the building's foundation and support structures, since its entire weight would be supported by stilts. However, this did not come without a price; when the building was erected in 1977 it was discovered that the light-weight façade made the building vulnerable to swaying under high wind conditions. Concerned that the building might tip over in very high winds the building's engineers installed a "Tuned mass damper" in the roof which acts as a counterbalance to the building's swaying.Time Warner Center is a mixed-use skyscraper at Columbus Circle on Manhattan's Upper West Side. It has attracted much attention as the first major building to be completed since the September 11th terrorist attacks and has become known to many New Yorkers as the "new twin towers." Additional publicity was generated in 2003 when David Martinez paid $45 million for a penthouse condominium, a record for New York residential sales.The Condé Nast Building, officially Four Times Square, is a modern skyscraper in Times Square in Midtown Manhattan and one of the most important examples of green design in skyscrapers in the United States. Environmentally friendly gas-fired absorption chillers, along with a high-performing insulating and shading curtain wall, ensure that the building does not need to be heated or cooled for the majority of the year. Office furniture is made with biodegradable and non-toxic materials. The air-delivery system provides 50% more fresh air than is required by New York City Building Code, and a number of recycling chutes serve the entire building. Being the first project of its size to undertake these features in construction, the building has received an award from the American Institute of Architects, as well as AIA New York State.Hearst Tower, located in Midtown Manhattan at 300 West 57th Street, is another example of the new breed of green design skyscrapers in New York City. Hearst Tower is a glass and steel construction skyscraper which rests on the base of the original 1920s Hearst Corporation Building. Hearst Tower is easily identified by the dramatic interlocking triangular glass panels designed by British architect Lord Norman Foster. Hearst Tower is also the first skyscraper in New York City to be awarded the coveted Gold LEED Certified rating by the United States Green Building Council.
  • 뉴욕의 건축의 두드러진 특징은 초고층 빌딩이 많다는 것이다. 초고층 빌딩의 출현과 확산에 의해 뉴욕은 유럽적인 저층 건축에서 건물들이 들어선 비즈니스 도시로 변모했다. 2008년 8월 기준으로 뉴욕에는 고층 빌딩이 5538채가 있다. 200m 이상의 고층 빌딩은 50채가 있다. 이 수는 미국 내에서 1위이며, 세계에서 홍콩에 이어 2위이다.뉴욕에는 다양한 양식으로 지어진 건물이 많다. 1913년에 지어진 울워스 빌딩은 초기 고딕 리바이벌 건축의 고층 빌딩이며, 큼직하게 디자인된 고딕 양식의 장식은 200m 가까이 아래 거리에서도 볼 수 있다. 1930년 지어진 크라이슬러 빌딩은 아르데코풍의 디자인으로 상단면이 위로 향해 가늘어지고 있으며, 스틸 첨탑이 서 있다. 61층 모서리에 있는 독수리 머리 모형과, 첨탑 아래의 V자형 조명 등의 화려한 장식은 크라이슬러 빌딩은 많은 역사가와 건축가들은 뉴욕에서 가장 뛰어난 건축물로 평가하고 있다. 미국의 인터내셔널 스타일 건축의 예로서 큰 영향을 준 것이 1957년 완공된 시그램 빌딩이며, 전면에는 건물의 구조를 나타내는 청동 재료의 I 빔이 외부에서 보이게 되어있다. 2000년 완공된 콘데 내스트 빌딩은 녹색 디자인으로 지어진 건물의 중요한 예이다.뉴욕의 대규모 주거 지역은 갈색 사암으로된 테라스 하우스, 타운하우스, 그리고 1870년부터 1930년까지의 급속한 개발기에 지어진 허름한 주택 단지로 경계가 나누어지는 경우가 많다. 1835년 뉴욕 대화재 후, 목조 건축의 건설이 제한되었으며, 돌과 벽돌을 주로 건축 자재로하여 집을 지었다. 몇 세기에 걸쳐 마을의 석회암 지반에서 건축 자재를 얻었던 파리와 달리, 뉴욕은 넓은 채석장에서 건축 자재를 얻어 석조 건물을 지었으며, 그 석조 건물을 구성하는 돌의 종류는 다양하다. 1800년대의 뉴욕은 6층보다 높은 건물은 급수탑을 설치하지 않으면, 낮은 층에서 지나치게 높은 수압을 걸어야하고, 그렇게 되면 수도관 파열의 위험이 있었다. 1920년대에는 중심부에서 떨어진 지역에서 전원 도시가 성행했으며, 퀸스 지역의 잭슨 하이츠는 전원 도시 중 하나이다.
  • L'arquitectura de Nova York presenta un resum de la història de l'arquitectura americana i de l'arquitectura contemporània més enllà dels coneguts gratacels de Manhattan.
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  • Connue pour les gratte-ciel de Manhattan, la ville de New York recèle bien d'autres formes d'architecture qui constituent un résumé de l'histoire de l'architecture américaine et de l'architecture contemporaine.
  • L'arquitectura de Nova York presenta un resum de la història de l'arquitectura americana i de l'arquitectura contemporània més enllà dels coneguts gratacels de Manhattan.
  • 뉴욕의 건축의 두드러진 특징은 초고층 빌딩이 많다는 것이다. 초고층 빌딩의 출현과 확산에 의해 뉴욕은 유럽적인 저층 건축에서 건물들이 들어선 비즈니스 도시로 변모했다. 2008년 8월 기준으로 뉴욕에는 고층 빌딩이 5538채가 있다. 200m 이상의 고층 빌딩은 50채가 있다. 이 수는 미국 내에서 1위이며, 세계에서 홍콩에 이어 2위이다.뉴욕에는 다양한 양식으로 지어진 건물이 많다. 1913년에 지어진 울워스 빌딩은 초기 고딕 리바이벌 건축의 고층 빌딩이며, 큼직하게 디자인된 고딕 양식의 장식은 200m 가까이 아래 거리에서도 볼 수 있다. 1930년 지어진 크라이슬러 빌딩은 아르데코풍의 디자인으로 상단면이 위로 향해 가늘어지고 있으며, 스틸 첨탑이 서 있다. 61층 모서리에 있는 독수리 머리 모형과, 첨탑 아래의 V자형 조명 등의 화려한 장식은 크라이슬러 빌딩은 많은 역사가와 건축가들은 뉴욕에서 가장 뛰어난 건축물로 평가하고 있다.
  • The building form most closely associated with New York City is the skyscraper, which has controversially shifted many commercial and residential districts from low-rise to high-rise. Surrounded mostly by water, the city has amassed one of the largest and most varied collection of skyscrapers in the world.New York has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles spanning distinct historical and cultural periods.
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  • Architecture à New York
  • Architecture of New York City
  • Arquitectura de Nova York
  • 뉴욕의 건축
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