L'apologue est un discours narratif démonstratif et allégorique, à visée argumentative et didactique, rédigé en vers ou en prose ; c'est un récit dont on tire une leçon.

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  • L'apologue est un discours narratif démonstratif et allégorique, à visée argumentative et didactique, rédigé en vers ou en prose ; c'est un récit dont on tire une leçon.
  • Apólogo é uma narrativa que busca ilustrar lições de sabedoria ou ética, através do uso de personalidades de índole diversa, imaginárias ou reais, com personagens inanimados. Servem como exemplos os clássicos apólogos de Esopo e de La Fontaine. Serve como texto moralizante nao explicito na narrativa "apologo".É comumente confundido com a fábula, que é focada nas relações que envolvem coisas e animais (ex: o livro Quem Mexeu no Meu Queijo e A Revolução dos Bichos), e com a parábola, que se centra nas histórias somente entre homens e comumente possui cunho religioso (ex: Parábolas de Jesus).Há um apólogo na Bíblia, chamado de Apólogo de Jotão. Encontra-se em Juízes 9.7-21.Bem parecido com a fábula em sua estrutura, o apólogo é um tipo de narrativa que personifica os seres inanimados, transformando-os em personagens da história.Diversos autores consideram que pode-se considerar o apólogo como uma parábola que não utiliza apenas, e a título de analogia, um caso particular a fim de tornar perceptível uma significação geral.Na Espanha, durante o século XVII, fizeram escola os apólogos dos Sonhos (de Los Sueños), de Quevedo, e o Colóquio dos Cachorros (Coloquio de los perros), de Cervantes.Características dos fucv Geralmente são escritos em prosa Narram feitos similares aos da vida real O enredo tem grande força imaginativa Buscam a perfeição interior:* Pregam o auto-sacrifício, a renúncia ou a abnegação por uma grande causa Encerram conteúdo moralizante ou didáticoFormula 1 e um tipo de apólogo
  • L'apologo è un racconto breve e solitamente di carattere allegorico che normalmente si prefigge un fine pedagogico, morale e filosofico. In esso protagonisti sono gli animali ma più spesso gli uomini.L'apologo, che come genere letterario è simile all'exemplum, è stato utilizzato nell'età del medioevo soprattutto nelle opere a carattere religioso ed ebbe fortuna in seguito nella letteratura moraleggiante del Seicento di cui si ricordano gli apologhi dialogati del letterato Francisco Manuel de Melo scritti tra gli anni che vanno dal 1654 al 1657 e disquisiscono sulla morte, la vecchiaia, il modo di vivere del tempo. Un apologo famoso, quello di Menenio Agrippa, risale al periodo romano e viene riportato da Tito Livio nella sua opera sulla "Storia di Roma", dove si narra la vicenda dei patrizi che riuscirono a convincere i plebei a lasciare il colle Aventino dove si erano rifugiati a desistere a combattere la guerra civile (vedi Monte Sacro#La rivolta della plebe del 494 a.C.).Apologo fondamentale nella poetica tardo ottocentesca è presente nell'opera "L'Albatro" di Baudelaire dove il maestoso uccello simboleggia il poeta veggente.Un altro apologo famoso è quello di cui si servì Einstein per spiegare gli effetti del viaggio a velocità prossime a quella della luce: presi due gemelli, quello che compie un viaggio a tali velocità dimostra di essere invecchiato più lentamente rispetto colui che vive sulla terra. La storiella spiega in modo esemplare il funzionamento della legge.
  • Аполо́г (от на старогръцки: ἀπό — „далеч“, и λογος — „дума, слово“ — „повествование, разказ“). Литературен жанр за произведение, написано в алегорична форма, в което най-често се говори за животни или растения, а се подразбират хора и се изразява някаква поука. Като нравоучителен разказ апологът най-напред се появява в литературата на индусите. От него възниква баснята, при която образите се рисуват по-конкретно и по-пълно. Най-старият сборник с аполози е староиндийският „Панчатантра“, написан на санскритски език.Някои литературоведи изравняват съдържанието на термина аполог с басня, а други го употребяват в смисъл на апологет.По обем апологът е по-кратък от баснята.
  • An apologue or apolog (from the Greek ἀπόλογος, a "statement" or "account") is a brief fable or allegorical story with pointed or exaggerated details, meant to serve as a pleasant vehicle for a moral doctrine or to convey a useful lesson without stating it explicitly. Unlike a fable, the moral is more important than the narrative details. As with the parable, the apologue is a tool of rhetorical argument used to convince or persuade. Among the best known ancient and classical examples are that of Jotham in the Book of Judges (9:7-15); "The Belly and its Members," by the patrician Agrippa Menenius Lanatus in the second book of Livy; and perhaps most famous of all, those of Aesop. Well-known modern examples of this literary form include George Orwell's Animal Farm and the Br'er Rabbit stories derived from African and Cherokee cultures and recorded and synthesized by Joel Chandler Harris. The term is applied more particularly to a story in which the actors or speakers are either various kinds of animals or are inanimate objects. An apologue is distinguished from a fable in that there is always some moral sense present in the former, which there need not be in the latter. An apologue is generally dramatic, and has been defined as "a satire in action." An apologue differs from a parable in several respects. A parable is equally an ingenious tale intended to correct manners, but it can be true in the sense that "when this kind of actual event happens among men, this is what it means and this is how we should think about it", while an apologue, with its introduction of animals and plants, to which it lends ideas, language and emotions, contains only metaphoric truth: "when this kind of situation exists anywhere in the world, here is an interesting truth about it." The parable reaches heights to which the apologue cannot aspire, for the points in which animals and nature present analogies to man are principally those of his lower nature (hunger, desire, pain, fear, etc.), and the lessons taught by the apologue seldom therefore reach beyond prudential morality (keep yourself safe, find ease where you can, plan for the future, don't misbehave or you'll eventually be caught and punished), whereas the parable aims at representing the relations between man and existence or higher powers (know your role in the universe, behave well towards all you encounter, kindness and respect are of higher value than cruelty and slander). It finds its framework in the world of nature as it actually is, and not in any parody of it, and it exhibits real and not fanciful analogies. The apologue seizes on that which humans have in common with other creatures, and the parable on that which we have in common with a greater existence. Still, in spite of the difference of moral level, Martin Luther thought so highly of apologues as counselors of virtue that he edited and revised Aesop and wrote a characteristic preface to the volume. The parable is always blunt and devoid of subtlety, and requires no interpretation; the apologue by nature necessitates at least some degree of reflection and thought to achieve understanding, and in this sense it demands more of the listener than the parable does. The origin of the apologue is extremely ancient and comes from the Middle East and its surrounding area (Persia, Asia Minor, Egypt, etc.), which is the Classical fatherland of everything connected with allegory, metaphor and imagination. Veiled truth was often necessary in the Middle East, particularly among the slaves, who dared not reveal their minds too openly. It is noteworthy that the two fathers of apologue in the West were slaves, namely Aesop and Phaedrus. La Fontaine in France; Gay and Dodsley in England; Gellert, Lessing and Hagedorn in Germany; Tomas de Iriarte in Spain, and Krylov in Russia, are leading modern writers of apologues. Length is not an essential matter in the definition of an apologue. Those of La Fontaine are often very short, as, for example, "Le Coq et la Perle" ("The Cock and the Pearl"). On the other hand, in the romances of Reynard the Fox we have medieval apologues arranged in cycles, and attaining epical dimensions. An Italian fabulist, Corti, is said to have developed an apologue of "The Talking Animals" reaching twenty-six cantos. La Motte, writing at a time when this species of literature was universally admired, attributes its popularity to the fact that it manages and flatters amour-propre by inculcating virtue in an amusing manner without seeming to dictate or insist. This was the ordinary 18th-century view of the matter, but Rousseau contested the educational value of instruction given in this indirect form. A work by P. Soullé, La Fontaine et ses devanciers (1866), is a history of the apologue from the earliest times until its final triumph in France. Montesquieu wrote a propos his Persian Letters "There are certain truths of which it is not enough to persuade, but which must be made to be felt. Such are the moral verities. Perhaps a bit of history will be more touching than subtle philosophy."
  • Un apólogo es una narración parenética cuyo propósito es instruir sobre algún principio ético o moral o de comportamiento, por lo general situado al final o al principio de la misma y denominado moraleja. A diferencia de la fábula, que puede estar escrita en verso o en prosa y está protagonizada por animales, el apólogo está escrito solamente en prosa, no suele estar protagonizada por animales sino por humanos es decir, personas, y se distingue también de la alegoría en que tampoco puede estar protagonizada por ideas abstractas en forma humana o humanoide. Tampoco puede considerarse similar a la parábola o relato simbólico, pues algunos tipos de parábola, como la parábola kafkiana, pueden no poseer ningún fin de instrucción moral en sí mismos, sino revelar la situación desesperada del hombre en la realidad. En realidad es un subgénero del género didáctico.Durante mucho tiempo ha existido la confusión de señalar que apólogo y fábula son lo mismo, debido a que ambas formas literarias tienen similitudes que las hermanan; sin embargo, cada una posee rasgos característicos que las distinguen.
  • Der Begriff Apolog ( griech. απολογος apologos) bezeichnete ursprünglich eine ‚märchenhafte Erzählung‘. Später verschob sich die Bedeutung des Wortes dahin, dass man mit ihm ‚lehrreiche Fabeln‘ bezeichnete, insbesondere solche moralisch-didaktischen Inhaltes. Kennzeichnend war dabei eine deutlich ausgesprochene Lehre am Schluss („Und die Moral von der Geschicht…“).Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel widmet der Problematik des Apologs eine kurze Betrachtung in seinen Vorlesungen über die Ästhetik.Er definiert den Apolog folgendermaßen: „[Er] (…) kann für eine Parabel angesehen werden, welche den einzelnen Fall nicht nur gleichnisweise zur Veranschaulichung einer allgemeinen Bedeutung gebraucht, sondern in dieser Einkleidung selbst den allgemeinen Satz herbeiführt und ausspricht, indem derselbe wirklich in dem einzelnen Falle enthalten ist, der jedoch nur als ein einzelnesBeispiel erzählt wird. (…) In dem Apolog wird die Erzählung so weitergeleitet, daß ihr Ausgang die Lehre selber ohne bloße Vergleichung gibt, wie z. B. im »Schatzgräber«: Tages Arbeit, abends Gäste, Saure Wochen, frohe Feste Sei dein künftig Zauberwort.“ Als Beispiel für einen Apolog nennt er Goethes „Der Gott und die Bajadere“.Das Wort Apolog ist zudem Bestandteil der Titel eines Werkes von Friedrich Adolf Krummacher („Apologen und Paramythien“), das 1809 erschien, sowie eines Werkes von Ernst Elias Bessler („Apologische Poesie“), das 1717 erschien.“
  • Apolog (gr. apólogos = opowieść) – krótki utwór prozą lub wierszem o charakterze dydaktyczno-moralizatorskim, często alegoryczny. Bohaterami takich utworów są postacie o schematycznych cechach.
  • L'apòleg és un gènere literari dins la narrativa que es caracteritza per explicar una història breu amb finalitat didàctica. Els seus personatges són humans, a diferència de la faula, i el missatge final és més rellevant que la narració, amb la qual cosa s'allunya del conte amb moralina o el popular. L'apòleg va sorgir a la literatura oral d'Orient Mitjà i va derivar en les paràbol·les bíbliques, els exempla llatins i medievals i les màximes clàssiques i modernes.
  • Аполо́г (апо́лог; от др.-греч. ἀπόλογος — «повествование, рассказ») — литературный жанр, дидактический (нравоучительный) рассказ (повествование), построенное на аллегорическом (иносказательном) изображении животных или растений.
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  • L'apologue est un discours narratif démonstratif et allégorique, à visée argumentative et didactique, rédigé en vers ou en prose ; c'est un récit dont on tire une leçon.
  • Apolog (gr. apólogos = opowieść) – krótki utwór prozą lub wierszem o charakterze dydaktyczno-moralizatorskim, często alegoryczny. Bohaterami takich utworów są postacie o schematycznych cechach.
  • L'apòleg és un gènere literari dins la narrativa que es caracteritza per explicar una història breu amb finalitat didàctica. Els seus personatges són humans, a diferència de la faula, i el missatge final és més rellevant que la narració, amb la qual cosa s'allunya del conte amb moralina o el popular. L'apòleg va sorgir a la literatura oral d'Orient Mitjà i va derivar en les paràbol·les bíbliques, els exempla llatins i medievals i les màximes clàssiques i modernes.
  • Аполо́г (апо́лог; от др.-греч. ἀπόλογος — «повествование, рассказ») — литературный жанр, дидактический (нравоучительный) рассказ (повествование), построенное на аллегорическом (иносказательном) изображении животных или растений.
  • An apologue or apolog (from the Greek ἀπόλογος, a "statement" or "account") is a brief fable or allegorical story with pointed or exaggerated details, meant to serve as a pleasant vehicle for a moral doctrine or to convey a useful lesson without stating it explicitly. Unlike a fable, the moral is more important than the narrative details. As with the parable, the apologue is a tool of rhetorical argument used to convince or persuade.
  • Un apólogo es una narración parenética cuyo propósito es instruir sobre algún principio ético o moral o de comportamiento, por lo general situado al final o al principio de la misma y denominado moraleja.
  • Apólogo é uma narrativa que busca ilustrar lições de sabedoria ou ética, através do uso de personalidades de índole diversa, imaginárias ou reais, com personagens inanimados. Servem como exemplos os clássicos apólogos de Esopo e de La Fontaine.
  • Аполо́г (от на старогръцки: ἀπό — „далеч“, и λογος — „дума, слово“ — „повествование, разказ“). Литературен жанр за произведение, написано в алегорична форма, в което най-често се говори за животни или растения, а се подразбират хора и се изразява някаква поука. Като нравоучителен разказ апологът най-напред се появява в литературата на индусите. От него възниква баснята, при която образите се рисуват по-конкретно и по-пълно.
  • Der Begriff Apolog ( griech. απολογος apologos) bezeichnete ursprünglich eine ‚märchenhafte Erzählung‘. Später verschob sich die Bedeutung des Wortes dahin, dass man mit ihm ‚lehrreiche Fabeln‘ bezeichnete, insbesondere solche moralisch-didaktischen Inhaltes.
  • L'apologo è un racconto breve e solitamente di carattere allegorico che normalmente si prefigge un fine pedagogico, morale e filosofico.
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