Dans le domaine des forages pétroliers, gaziers ou hydrauliques, les agents de soutènement (ou Proppants ou propping agents) sont des produits solides (naturels ou synthétiques) qui sont injectées dans les fractures et microfracturations provoquées dans la roche lors des opérations de fracturation hydraulique (Fracing ou fracking ou hydrofracking).

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dbpedia-owl:abstract
  • Dans le domaine des forages pétroliers, gaziers ou hydrauliques, les agents de soutènement (ou Proppants ou propping agents) sont des produits solides (naturels ou synthétiques) qui sont injectées dans les fractures et microfracturations provoquées dans la roche lors des opérations de fracturation hydraulique (Fracing ou fracking ou hydrofracking). Mis en suspension dans le fluide de fracturation, ces « proppants » sont surtout destinés à être introduits dans les fissures fraichement ouvertes de la roche profonde (ouvertes par des explosions et/ou une importante surpression visant à fracturer la roche-réservoir (schiste en général) tout au long des forages dirigés). Leur rôle est de produire une couche à la fois perméable et assez résistante pour maintenir les microfissures ouvertes après les avoir pénétré. Cette couche crée et conserve un « chemin drainant » au sein duquel les fluides (gaz, pétrole, eau) percoleront facilement jusqu'au puits d'extraction au fur et à mesure qu'ils seront désorbés de la roche-réservoir.
  • A proppant is a solid material, typically treated sand or man-made ceramic materials, designed to keep an induced hydraulic fracture open, during or following a fracturing treatment. It is added to a fracking fluid which may vary in composition depending on the type of fracturing used, and can be gel, foam or slickwater-based. In addition, there may be unconventional fracking fluids. Fluids make tradeoffs in such material properties as viscosity, where more viscous fluids can carry more concentrated proppant; the energy or pressure demands to maintain a certain flux pump rate (flow velocity) that will conduct the proppant appropriately; pH, various rheological factors, among others. In addition, fluids may be used in low-volume well stimulation of high-permeability sandstone wells (20k to 80k gallons per well) to the high-volume operations such as shale gas and tight gas that use millions of gallons of water per well.Conventional wisdom has often vacillated about the relative superiority of gel, foam and slickwater fluids with respect to each other, which is in turn related to proppant choice. For example, Zuber, Kuskraa and Sawyer (1988) found that gel-based fluids seemed to achieve the best results for coalbed methane operations, but as of 2012, slickwater treatments are more popular.Ignoring proppant, slickwater fracturing fluids are mostly water, generally 99% or more by volume, but gel-based fluids can see polymers and surfactants comprising as much as 7 vol% , ignoring other additives. Other common additives include hydrochloric acid (low pH can etch certain rocks, dissolving limestone for instance), friction reducers, guar gum, biocides, emulsion breaker, emulsifiers, and 2-Butoxyethanol.Radioactive tracer isotopes are sometimes included in the hydrofracturing fluid to determine the injection profile and location of fractures created by hydraulic fracturing. Patents describe in detail how several tracers are typically used in the same well. Wells are hydraulically fractured in different stages. Tracers with different half-lives are used for each stage. Their half-lives range from 40.2 hours (lanthanum-140) to 5.27 years (cobalt-60). Amounts per injection of radionuclide are listed in The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) guidelines. The NRC guidelines also list a wide range or radioactive materials in solid, liquid and gaseous forms that are used as field flood or enhanced oil and gas recovery study applications tracers used in single and multiple wells.Except for diesel-based additive fracturing fluids, noted by the American Environmental Protection Agency to have a higher proportion of volatile organic compounds and carcinogenic BTEX, use of fracturing fluids in hydraulic fracturing operations was explicitly excluded from regulation under the American Clean Water Act in 2005, a legislative move that has since attracted controversy for being the product of special interests lobbying.
  • Пропант (или проппант, от англ. propping agent — «расклинивающий агент») — гранулообразный материал, который используется в нефтедобывающей промышленности для повышения эффективности отдачи скважин с применением технологии гидроразрыва пласта (ГРП).Служит для сохранения проницаемости трещин, получаемых в ходе ГРП.Представляет собой гранулы сходного размера, с типичным диаметром от 0,5 до 1,2 мм.
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  • Category:Petroleum production
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  • Production pétrolière
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rdfs:comment
  • Dans le domaine des forages pétroliers, gaziers ou hydrauliques, les agents de soutènement (ou Proppants ou propping agents) sont des produits solides (naturels ou synthétiques) qui sont injectées dans les fractures et microfracturations provoquées dans la roche lors des opérations de fracturation hydraulique (Fracing ou fracking ou hydrofracking).
  • Пропант (или проппант, от англ. propping agent — «расклинивающий агент») — гранулообразный материал, который используется в нефтедобывающей промышленности для повышения эффективности отдачи скважин с применением технологии гидроразрыва пласта (ГРП).Служит для сохранения проницаемости трещин, получаемых в ходе ГРП.Представляет собой гранулы сходного размера, с типичным диаметром от 0,5 до 1,2 мм.
  • A proppant is a solid material, typically treated sand or man-made ceramic materials, designed to keep an induced hydraulic fracture open, during or following a fracturing treatment. It is added to a fracking fluid which may vary in composition depending on the type of fracturing used, and can be gel, foam or slickwater-based. In addition, there may be unconventional fracking fluids.
rdfs:label
  • Agents de soutènement
  • Hydraulic fracturing proppants
  • Пропант
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